How is it that two men that come from identical backgrounds end up being completely opposites? Wes Moore takes us back to his childhood growing up, and also introduces us to a character sharing the same name as him, and similarly, the same lifestyle. Both of the young men shared the absence of a father figure, living in poor neighborhoods, bad influences, and lack of education. While reading, we question “how?” and “why?” There is no exact answer to our questions. Inside of “The Other Wes Moore”, two similar tales are told, however, there are two different outcomes.
Urlue Bronfenbrenner has developed the ecological system theory to explain how everything in a child. Bronfenbrenner has labeled different aspects or the levels that the environment influence the children’s development. Bronfenbrenner has labeled the four theory’s microsystem, mesosystem, ecosystem, and macrosystem. The macrosystem is a small immediate that the environment of the child lives in. The children of microsystem include any relationships or organizations that interact with their immediate family, caregivers, school, and the daycare. The child acts and reacts to the people in the macrosystem that affect how they treat them. Each of the children has special genetic and has influenced personality traits that are unknown. Macrosystem
Urie Bronfenbrenner was a developmental psychologist who was known for his work and theories on child development. He developed his theories and ideas with the use of ecological models, which are defined as, a method used for the further understanding of the influential interrelations between various personal and environmental factors. Bronfenbrenner’s belief was that the social environments in which children were raised impacted greatly on their development. The ecological environment is conceived as a set of nested structures each inside the other like a set of Russian dolls (Bronfenbrenner 1977 ; Lewin 1917,1935 ), It’s seen this way because it moves and expands through the inner most section called The Microsystem, to the outer most The
In each of the stages are measured person new challenges associated with age (degree of development) and social situations in which it is situated. Erikson described the characteristic "crises" occurring in stages that will be shown are the most viable. This does not mean that later no longer have meaning. It's like all of us strike deal with them shapes our personality. The crisis is understood in this theory as the need to develop new forms of adaptation to the environment and fulfill our needs. The core of each stage is a "fundamental crisis", representing a challenge for the developing ego and being a product of contact with some new aspect of society. However, "fundamental crisis" exists not only during a certain stage. There is in him obviously, but it has its roots in the past and the consequences in the next. In the last stage (integrity vs. despair) after the experience of the previous phases of man can “reap the fruits” of your life. Experiencing that his life has a purpose and meaning. Although he knows that others may have different lifestyles, however, follows his own. The opposite of despair when he sees rather a variation of fate, the fragility of life. This reinforces the fear of death. From the clash between despair and integrity, sense and nonsense born wisdom. Erikson describes it as an
The adolescence stage of development is a critical transition period in a child’s life because this is the stage at which the child struggles to discover their identity, as they evolve into adults. Throughout this transition, the child experiences different physical, cognitive, and social changes that cause the child to feel the need to reconsider their identity. Psychologist Eric Erikson theorizes that, “adolescents experiment with different roles while trying to integrate identities from previous stages”. This theory created by Erikson is the fifth ego crisis referred to as “identity vs. role confusion”. Identity vs. role confusion demonstrations the adolescent’s conflict between social role expectations, the need to fit in, and the ability
We as individuals and humans will encounter several things throughout the course of our life that will impact and shape us, weather it be religious views, our upbringing, or life events, all play an important role in our development. Urie Bronfenbrenner, a psychologist, believed that how a child and his environment interacted with each other will influence how a child will develop and grow. In Bronfenbrenner’s theory of human development he separates a child's environment into five systems they are, the microsystem, this is the child’s immediate environment, the mesosystem, which is the interactions and connections between the child and the microsystem, the exosystem, which is the system that the child will not directly be in but will have
The strengths and resilience of African American single mothers has historically changed families and communities for the better. However, African American single mothers are often a vulnerable population at risk for poor physical and mental health with negative outcomes outweighing both their female and male counterparts (Hatcher, Rayens, Peden, & Hall, 2012). There has been numerous race comparative self-esteem studies and research on the effects of single parenthood on child and adolescent self-esteem. Yet few studies focus on the factors that impact both positive and negative self-esteem exclusively in African American mothers apart from their children. Most of what we know about the self-esteem of African Americans
The last level of Bronfenbrenner’s ecological theory is known as the macrosystem. This level is the largest level and might not seem to have such a great affect on a child, but even though it doesn’t seem like it has an effect on a child it can be the level that has the most affect on a child. This level has a great influence on a child’s development. Like all the other levels the level can also affect a child either positive or negatively. Examples of things that make up the macrosystem are cultural values, the economy, wars that might take place and human rights such as
The crucial challenge facing adolescents is one of self- definition and identity formation (Erikson (1968). As they proceed through a period of questioning (identity moratorium) to a phase of making commitments without crisis (identity achievement) their self-perceptions and social interactions enable to define their sense of ‘identity’. David Elkind (1967) discussed how people at this point of life experience egocentrism, which leads to self-consciousness due to the belief in an imaginary audience. An important developmental task for adolescents is their ability to self - disclose (Harter, 1999). The Internet provides adolescents with avenues to explore their identities and exchange intimate disclosures (Wolak, Mitchell and Finklehor, 2003). Adolescents engage in Social acuity, a perspective - taking ability to successfully create a desired impression.
“There is no limit to what we, as women, can accomplish, whether that’s in politics or other fields.” –Michelle Obama. Anyone of any gender can accomplish anything, but certain groups may not be able to due to the discrimination they go through trying to accomplish something based on their gender.
Adolescence is not defined by one single definition; instead, it is a combination of several key aspects and how they interact with one another. All aspects are accompanied by Bronfenbrenner’s Biological Approach. This is a set of systems that interact with the environment. The first, microsystem, is comprised of home, school, and neighborhood. The second, mesosystem, is the link between microsystem and exosystem. Exosystem is the influence of parents’ jobs and social groups. The fourth, macrosystem, consists of cultural values, political system, and economy. The fifth and final, chronosystem, is an event or a collection of events that changes the interactions of one of the four. These are easily seen when reflecting on physical, cognitive,
Individuals and experiences impact a child’s development, according to psychologist Urie Bronfenbrenner’s ecological systems theory. A child 's environment affects how a child develops, which begins with an individual’s family and extends to the interactions within the environment. Interactions, with environmental experiences, shape the course of a lifespan development.
Jean Piaget, known for his interest in the Epistemology in children is seen as the pioneer of Developmental Psychology. Piaget 's Cognitive development theory led to a great deal of research work in the field of educational philosophy . But in the discipline of Psychology, every theory has been faced with a counter theory or an alternative. So is the case with Piaget 's theory. Lev Vygotsky, a soviet psychologist came up with the socio-cultural theory, which is another strong theory emphasizing child development and is seen as a major counter theory to Piaget 's work (Saul McLeod, 2004). Theories of these two cognitive psychologists have been compared and contrasted on different levels. This essay will look into the differences and similarities between their theories.
Adolescence is a developmental transition between childhood and adulthood and also a period of prominent change for teenagers when physical changes are happening at an accelerated rate. Adolescence is not just marked by physical changes but also cognitive, social, emotional and interpersonal changes as well. The development of a strong and stable sense of self known as identity development is widely considered to be one of the crucial tasks of adolescence. Identity development of an adolescent is influenced by external factors, such as their environment, culture, religion, school and the media.
Due to challenges as well as issues confronted by adolescents they may have identity confusion which is comprised of identity foreclosure, negative identity and diffusion. Identity foreclosure alludes to the identity crisis being resolved by making a series of premature decisions about one’s identity, based on other’s expectations of what and who one should be. Negative identity alludes to adolescents who form an identity contrary to the cultural values and expectations and diffusion refers to a kind of apathy in which the youth lacks any kind of passion or commitment (Louw&Louw, 2007). However, this challenge could be overcome by positive role identity or identity achievement which is “the sense of really knowing who one is and in general, where one is headed in life” (Fleming, 2004: 9).Erikson’s theory states that, throughout life, individuals go through various stages during which one will meet ever changing psychosocial challenges. The completion of the work of each stage which Erikson alludes to as a crisis that prepares one to move on to the following stage. According to this theory, if individuals do not resolve a crisis during any of these stages one will continue to create events throughout life which will recreate a crisis until one have done the psychosocial work necessary to resolve a specific crisis, or not (Erikson,