Phober Bullying Theory

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Bullying refers to aggressive behavior that is repetitive and intentional in which a power differential exists between the victim and bully. The negative effects of bullying on an individual's mental and physical health are substantial and in line with other major forms of child maltreatment. Efforts to increase detection of bullying are indicated, especially among youth presenting with school phobia, depression, anxiety, and declining school performance. Several antibullying efforts have been developed and promoted at the school and community level. Research indicates that many of these programs are effective and share some common elements that can help reduce the prevalence and impact of bullying. This article comes in the help of teachers,…show more content…
The psychology usually use Uri Bronfenbrenner ecological system: this theory helps us understand why we may behave differently when we compare our behaviour in the presence of our family and our behaviour when we are in school or at work. .

We will begin with the first level of Bronfenbrenner's theory: the microsystem. The microsystem is the system closest to the person and the one in which they have direct contact. Some examples would be home, school. A microsystem typically includes family, peers, or caregivers. Relationships in a microsystem are bi-directional. In other words, your reactions to the people in your microsystem will affect how they treat you in return. This is the most influential level of the ecological systems theory.

Let's look at the microsystem H. lives in. The first part of his microsystem is her home environment. This includes his interactions with her parents. H.'s school is also part of her microsystem. Her regular school interactions are with her teachers, counselor and the other children in her
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The exosystem refers to a setting that does not involve the person as an active participant, but still affects them. This includes decisions that have bearing on the person, but in which they have no participation in the decision-making process.

One part of H.’s exosystem would be the decision of the counselor not to do anything about her problems and her family not to get involved in her life outside family time. This situation impacts H. and she becomes anxious, filling more and more lonely and irrational.

The macrosystem is the largest and most distant collection of people and places to the child that still exercises significant influence on the child. It is composed of the child’s cultural patterns and values, specifically the child’s dominant beliefs and ideas, as well as political and economic systems.

The chronosystem adds the useful dimension of time, which demonstrates the influence of both change and constancy in the child’s environment. The chronosystem may thus include a change in family structure, address, parent’s employment status, in addition to immense society changes such as economic cycles and wars.

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