Gray Wolf Research Paper

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The gray wolf 's expressive behavior is more complex than that of the coyote and golden jackal, as necessitated by its group living and hunting habits. While less gregarious canids generally possess simple repertoires of visual signals, wolves have more varied signals which subtly inter grade in intensity.[12][13] When neutral, the legs are not stiffened, the tail hangs down loosely, the face is smooth, the lips untensed, and the ears point in no particular direction.[135] Postural communication in wolves consists of a variety of facial expressions, tail positions and piloerection.[120] Aggressive, or self-assertive wolves are characterized by their slow and deliberate movements, high body posture and raised hackles, while submissive ones carry their bodies low, sleeken their fur and lower their ears and tail.[136] When a breeding male encounters a subordinate family member, it may stare at it, standing erect and still with the tails horizontal to its spine.[137] Two forms of submissive behavior are recognized: passive and active. Passive submission usually occurs as a reaction to the approach of a dominant animal, and consists of the submissive wolf lying partly on its back and allowing the dominant wolf to sniff its anogenital area. Active submission occurs often as a form of greeting, and involves the submissive wolf approaching another in a low posture, and licking the other wolf 's face.[138] When wolves are together, they commonly indulge in behaviors such as nose pushing, jaw wrestling, cheek rubbing and facial…show more content…
In 2014, a study compared the facial color pattern across 25 canid species. The results suggested that that the facial color pattern of canid species is related to their gaze communication, and that especially gray wolves use the gaze signal in conspecific

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