Animals and plants become at risk for extinction, or endangerment, when environments and ecosystems are changed by human activities or other natural causes (Wright & Boorse, 2014). Regrettably, human activity is usually the source of environmental change and endangerment to a species through pollution, over-consumption, and in some regions of the world, over-population (Wright & Boorse, 2014). Also attributable to the destruction of a species, are the human activities that result in habitat loss and the introduction of an exotic species into foreign ecosystems (Wright & Boorse, 2014). Human activity is not solely to blame, as each species also has natural predators; however, habitat loss, relating to economic development, appears to be the …show more content…
Habitats generally consist of grasslands, rainforests, deciduous forests, deserts, and wetlands, thusly; each habitat provides the right mix of essential elements that make life possible for a species ("Endangered," 2007).
The red wolf (Canis Rufus), in 1967, became classified as one of the most endangered species of Canid in the United States ("Recovery," 2015). The red wolf, indigenous to North America, and once common throughout the eastern and southcentral portions of the United States ("Recovery," 2015), is one of two species of wolf that includes the Canis Lupus, otherwise known as the gray wolf ("History," 2015). Related to both the gray and red wolf, are the other members of the carnivorous Canid biological family, comprising of jackals, foxes, coyotes, and the domestic dog ("History," 2015). Separating the red wolf from the other Canids is the red wolf’s distinguishable reddish fur prominently located behind the ears, and along the neck and legs ("History," 2015). Size of the red wolf is …show more content…
Gaining allies from the general public, through education and sound science, is the next move towards the sustainability of the red wolf population by means of local, state, and federal laws that limits or places land use under private ownership. Lastly, stewardship is carried out through developing partnerships with likeminded people and organizations that possess the shared goals of conservation and repopulation of the red
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Invasive species interact with the global health of ecosystems; cause great damage to natural systems and are a huge cost to society as a whole (1). Biologists and environmentalists are alarmed that the invasions of these species could lead to large-scale declines and extinction of native species (3). There are approximately 50,000 foreign species Living in the United States, causing major environmental damages which costs add up to about $120 billion a year. It is believed that about 42% of the threatened or endangered species are at risk because of invasive species (4).
“Someday, when I am long gone, animal and plant life on Isle Royale may be so changed that wisdom will call for a different approach. But this time around, at the dawn of a new millennium, I must vote for the wolves.” (pg. 188). This statement is the final paragraph in the book “Wolves of Isle Royale: A Broken Balance” by Rolf O. Peterson. In order to understand the context of the quote by Peterson, it is crucial to understand the different aspects of Isle Royale.
The first pack of Nine mile wolves that was reintroduce into Pleasant Valley was not too soon after relocated. Having them reintroduced was an extremely controversial issue. The main issue between the wolves and residents was the preying on cattle. “The wolf is a meat-eating machine
The red wolf, or Canis Rufus, is a cousin to the gray wolf; however, the red wolf is smaller and thinner than the gray wolf. Their color is gray-black, but they also have a reddish color which reflects their name (“Red Wolf” 2017). In terms of size, the red wolf is between gray wolves and coyotes (“Red Wolf (Canis Rufus)”). They have a height of about 26 inches (at the shoulders), a length of 4.5-5.5 feet (including the tail), and weight of 50-80 pounds. Their lifespan is 6-7 years in the wild but up to 15 years in captivity (“Red Wolf” 2017).
Sadly, many Americans believe that losing the wolves would not be a bad thing for the prey’s sake, but in all reality losing the wolves would be devastating. One major thing that is present in all ecosystems, the place in which animals live, is a trophic cascade. A trophic cascade is explained in the essay as a “sequence of impacts down the food chain” (578). Hannibal gives the reader this example: “…In Wyoming’s Yellowstone National Park … wolves were virtually wiped out in the 1920’s and reintroduced in the ‘90s. Since the wolves have come back, scientists have noted an unexpected improvement in many of the park’s degraded stream areas”
A keystone species are an extremely important factor for keeping diversity in an ecosystem. When lost they can have detrimental effect on the ecosystem they are inhabiting. These include and diversity decrease and the ecosystem 's structure is significantly structured(Campbell). It has a strong control over the community due to its ecological role or niche(Reece). One of the main keystone species that is regenerating is the grey wolf or the Canis lupus.
One important aspects of the restoration of the ecosystem is the reintroduction of organisms that are locally extinct (D. Manning et al, 2008). The first proposal for the reintroduction of wolves to the Scottish Highlands was in the 1960s, at that time the majority of the proposals were unfounded and without scientific credibility .Currently the (Scottish Natural Heritage) which is the government organization responsible for wildlife and habitats in Scotland , have no plans to consider reintroduction of wolves (The Wolves and Humans Foundation). Problems with complex social economic or organizational Interactions and cannot be solved fully are considered as a wicked problem (Lucky, 2009), therefore reintroduction of wolves to Scotland could be considered as a challenge and when it comes to challenges wicked problems are the most difficult (Nixon, 2012). In previous years many researches had multiple views points to characterized wicked problems (Rittel & Webber (1973), Ritchey (2005), Robert Horn (1980), Jeff Conklin (2000), Roberts (1997, 2000, and
Define the following terms and provide an example of each: IN YOUR OWN WORDS Succession: Succession is a process where changes are made to the base of a biological community over a period of time. Primary Succession: Primary Succession is a progression in vegetation that happens in a barren landscape with no initial soil. EX: Soil developing on a newly formed island. Secondary Succession: Secondary Succession is the recovery of vegetation post natural disaster.
Wolves have a very low population, and are close to endangerment. The wolf’s biggest threat might be people. “Some people kill wolves for their fur or because they are afraid wolves might attack them.” Says Richard and Louise Spilsbury, authors of A Pack of Wolves. So, as an effort to save wolves, Yellowstone national park has started to relocate wolves. Did you Know?
The gray wolf 's expressive behavior is more complex than that of the coyote and golden jackal, as necessitated by its group living and hunting habits. While less gregarious canids generally possess simple repertoires of visual signals, wolves have more varied signals which subtly inter grade in intensity. When neutral, the legs are not stiffened, the tail hangs down loosely, the face is smooth, the lips untensed, and the ears point in no particular direction. Postural communication in wolves consists of a variety of facial expressions, tail positions and piloerection. Aggressive, or self-assertive wolves are characterized by their slow and deliberate movements, high body posture and raised hackles, while submissive ones carry their bodies low, sleeken their fur and lower their ears and tail. When a breeding male encounters a subordinate family member, it may stare at it, standing erect and still with the tails horizontal to its spine. Two forms of submissive behavior are recognized: passive and active. Passive submission usually occurs as a reaction to the approach of a dominant animal, and consists of the submissive wolf lying partly on its back and allowing the dominant wolf to sniff its anogenital area.
They were listed as endangered species. Then in 1976, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service listed the Mexican wolf as an endangered species. They were completely wiped out from Arizona and New Mexico. In 1997 the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service reintroduce Mexican wolves in eastern Arizona within the Blue Range Wolf Recovery Area (BRWRA). They decided to released wolves and their offspring for a nonessential experimental population.
The recovery plan for the black-footed ferret (Mustela nigripes) is a collaborative effort between the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) and the National Black-footed Ferret Conservation Center Office (USFWS, 2013). The species was first listed as endangered in 1967 and “grandfathered” into the Endangered Species Act in 1973 (USFWS, 2013). The black-footed ferrets populations declined because of the close association the ferrets have with the black-tailed prairie dog (C. ludovicianus), Gunnison’s prairie dog (C. gunnisoni), and white-tailed prairie dog (C. leucurus) (USFWS, 2013). The ferret relies on the prairie dogs for food and utilizes the prairie dog’s burrows for shelter. The destruction of habitats through the conversion of prairie land to cropland along with the poisoning of prairie dogs as pests, sylvatic plague and other diseases led to the prairie dog population decline (USFWS, 2013).
Sixty years after the extirpation of wolves in the Northern Rockies and Great Plains of America, biologist and ecologist in Yellowstone National Park reintroduced wolves into a declining ecosystem that once thrived during their presence. The reintroduction brought immense controversy into the West and continues to stir outrage among anti-wolf groups. These anti-wolf supporters argue wolves are ruthless predators that cause destruction to natural environments and livestock. Conversely wolf advocates and scientists suggest that wolves are a keystone species that are essential to the natural regulation of our Western ecosystems. Although pro and anti-wolf advocates can agree that wolves have an effect on livestock, ungulate populations and ecosystems,
Poaching and illegal hunting can cause an off set in the ecosystem by overhunting animals. When one animal population decline drastically, other organisms are affected too. The decline in native predators is the main cause for overpopulation of animals like deer. Deer overpopulation has led to rapid decrease vegetation life causing other animals to be put at risk. Removing predators from the food web disrupts the entire balance of an
Predators are like robbers of their prey’s life. Once one is caught, predators never let go. While some may argue that being in a zoo will affect an animal’s hunting skills, it’s not always the best plan to let endangered animals free in the wild. It stands to reason that society should continue keeping our animals safe from danger in