The city was divided into two parts; one was the Citadel where institution related to civil and religious concerns were found and the normal urban population area or the lower residential area where the people use to live. In Mohenjo-Daro as well as in Harappa, the citadel was surrounded by walls whereas in Kalibangan both residential as well as citadel were surrounded by wall. The towns and cities were parallel laid and the house were built of baked and unbaked bricks which tells us that brick making was a large scale industry of that time. If we look into the Citadel, the most important architecture was the ‘Great Bath’. The purpose of it is assumed to be for ritual practices or was of great importance to the people.
Archaeologists found out that their houses are one or two floors high and made of baked bricks. Each house was designed to be surrounded by an open courtyard and have running waters with a fountain for drinking and bathing which are connected to the pipes with running water to carry off the waste to a sewer under their street. It was thought that this civilization was composed of a small number of towns, but it was later found out that there is an extension of the Indus River that found a large number of similar houses and they concluded that the Indus Valley civilization was a very large
As a stream that ran through the city, it played a pivotal role in contributing to the city defenses through moats. The waters ran through a deep ditch along the city wall that spanned nine kilometers according to a papal architect named Antonio da Sangallo when he reviewed the defenses of Bologna. Aposa saw uses in the city in terms of sanitation. Its waters were not only used to clear blood from the central slaughterhouse and meat market, but the city streets as well using a sewer and drainage system. The next stream was named Savena and assisted in the sewer and drainage system with Aposa.
The storage, cooking, and serving vessels are most likely to be found in the kitchen or cooking areas. This may also be where the beer vats and a water container are found. The latrine, as is today, is typically tucked away in a corner for privacy. A central water container is found in the middle of the structure, and pots typically are found near where one can assume they would be used. The broken pots with leaves for trapping bugs would be found away from the living area, and as according to the map, there are small pots for birthing ritual purposes found just outside the living structure.
The granary and the city town hall are just some of the few buildings protected inside the citadel. Each cities has his/her own architect that plans and designs a specific place to ensure that there wouldn’t be any problem along or at the end of the process. An evidence to this is the drainage system in the lower town of Harappa. As you can see, the way this system works isn’t an easy task. It needs to be fully planned as to where the houses should be placed so that the flow of water from their drain to go smoothly to their drainage system down to where these waste are
The Indus Valley people had a merchant class that, evidence suggests, engaged in extensive trading. The unearthing of artifacts from the Indus Valley in regions of Mesopotamia and Central Asia suggests that trade was a significant aspect of this culture. It is evident that trading played an important role in the Harappan economy. Seals and weights that have been excavated and studied suggest that a system of tightly controlled trade was in place. The artifacts excavated also portray that the cities may have been wealthy.
This phase is related to Hakra, identified in the Ghaggar-Hakra river valley. This phase stands characterized by 'centralized authority ' and an increasingly 'urban quality ' of life. Trade networks were established and domestication of crops took place. Dates, sesame seeds, peas, cotton, etc., were some of the crops gown during this time. Kot diji represents this phase leading to Mature Harappan phase.
This peculiarity is done so that the pedestrians can orient and align themselves in the direction of the crossing. Even for such cases, the standards mentioned in the previous paragraph still apply. FIGURE 04 In the case of an uncontrolled crossing in a side road, it is preferable if the blister paving is not positioned within the first one metre from the radius of the kerb [Figure 05]. The blister paving in this case should not be less than 400mm deep. Apart from this, dropped kerbs on either side of the road, should be directly opposite to each other in order to reduce the crossing distance on the carriageway.
This could increase the cost of building though. Characteristics of Ampang Jaya architecture? The typical style of the housing in Ampang Jaya is the semi-detached homes with two storeys. Some of these homes are historical, and line the narrow streets of Ampang Jaya while others are typically architecturally designed homes built for the richer groupings in Malaysia. The houses all have balconies, as the weather permits for the indoor-outdoor living of the citizens of Ampang Jaya as well – typical to all of the architecture in Malaysia.
Literature Review Leakage detection Techniques With the current massive demand for fresh water for residential and industrial purposes, the water industry has made a huge effort to increase the effectiveness of their operation. Consequently, a numerous research was conducted on the field of leakage detection. The chronological appearance was introduced from  as shown in Figure 1. Since 1850s, leak detection was based on the sound, which is accompanied with leak. The detection via sound was based on installing wooden listening rods in all accessible contact points in the network, for instance main valves and hydrants, these listening rods acts like rudimentary listening transmittals.