Mesopotamia Essays

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    The first farmers used simple technology. They carried water to their crops by hand. They made farm tools from wood and animal bones. Over the centuries, ancient farmers devised better technology. Ancient Middle Easterners learned to breed sheep to produce different colors of wool.

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    The Olmec Civilization

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    Every Olmec site had its own channeled water system, providing plants with water for agricultural purposes (Mann 18-19). Although details are not clear and based on numerous hypotheses, several discoveries and findings have attested that the Olmec have had a significant influence on the political and social development of subsequent civilizations in Mesoamerica. By way of example, the Mayan are known to have inherited various elements of the Olmec´s enriched culture and worldview (McNeill and McNeill 110). Furthermore, similarities between the raised gardening fields in the Andean high plains, called “Altiplanos” and the Olmec´s “distinctive technique for intensifying agricultural output” (McNeill and McNeill 110)have been discovered, which may demonstrate the influence and spread of the Olmec´s intensive wetland agricultural practices. Fundamental grain plants domesticated and cultivated by the Olmec, were maize crops.

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    Hammurabi, who was a king of the “old Babylonian empire”(Jona Lendering, 2004), ruled from 1792 BCE to 1750 BCE for forty-two years and accomplished a great riverine civilization such that no other king had done to the extent of its mastery. The city of Babylon which is located in Mesopotamia is known as “modern day” Iraq which lies between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. These rivers helped in creating rich and fertile soil which allowed humans to plant and grow crops in which they needed to survive. Through trade, humans could communicate with one another and grasp on to new ideas. As a result of the rivers, civilization began to flourish outstandingly.

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    Egyptian Civilization: Egypt was built on both the sides of the River Nile. Egypt has the huge Mediterranean Sea as one boundary while the other boundary was a huge desert. The Nile is the only real river in the whole of North Africa, a phenomenon that gave the inhabitants of the valley a great advantage over all the other peoples west of them. In Egyptian society, the grain is considered the most important element. The female community was treated with respect.

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    Mesopotamia and Egypt are in different worlds, both of which have different cultures compared to one another. Although their cultures were different, they did have similarities. For example, they both had a similar form of writing and both were excellent with science and technology. They both established civilization “marked by an advanced stage of artistic and technological development and by corresponding social and political complexities” (Fagan 1). From the help of “symbolizations, specializations, and organization,” it “enable[d] civilized societies[Egypt and Mesopotamia] to extend greater control over their environments” (Fagan 1).

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    Ancient egypt and Mesopotamia both were on river valleys and they relied in it for their everyday lives. They both resided on river valleys Mesopotamia on the Tigris and Euphrates while Egypt on the Nile river. Although, they share the river characteristic the difference lied in the way each civilization views the river.

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    Mesopotamia and Egypt were early river valley civilizations. Archaeologists have discovered an incredible amount of information about them, and in that research many similarities and differences about the civilization’s religions stood out. Both Mesopotamian and Egyptian religions were polytheistic and believed in an afterlife, however Mesopotamians viewed gods as human-like and had grim views of life after death, while Egyptians viewed gods as a cross between humans and animals and had brighter views concerning their afterlife. Both Mesopotamia and Egypt were polytheistic civilizations. Mesopotamians believed in gods such as Utu, the sun god, and Ereshkigal, the god of the afterlife (Mesopotamia ppt).

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    Many empires rose and had fallen all through history all over the world; however, there is only one resemblance why empires succeed and get destroyed. In the Middle East, lies Mesopotamia, which formed in 3200-2350 BCE. South of the Mesopotamia is Ancient Greece and in Africa there is Aksum; Ancient Greece had a Golden Age in 750-338 BCE and Aksum thrived in 100-750 CE. Those empires as well as others rose and fell for many reasons, but the biggest reasons are the geography, proving that geography can change an empire in an instant. The Mesopotamia was constantly in danger because of their rivers; citizens never knew when the river stroke.

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    Intellectual seeking’s were valued greatly across Mesopotamia. The schools were said to be “as numerous as temples and taught reading, writing, religion, law, medicine, and astrology.” Over 1000 divinities in the pantheon of the gods in the Mesopotamian cultures with many stories concerning the gods. It’s generally credited to the Mesopotamian lore that biblical tales like “the Fall of Man” and “the Flood of Noah,” since they are appeared in Mesopotamian works like “The Myth of Adapa” and “The Epic of Gilgamesh.” Mesopotamians believed they’re coworkers with gods and that their land is infused with spirits and demons.

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    Egypt Vs Mesopotamia

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    Ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia, modern day Iraq, were two civilizations that shaped the way with regards to the religious, public works, and government aspects of our lives. They showed how to act in order to be successful. Many of the acts that were performed in ancient times are still done today. There are many aspects that go into a civilization, but the three that were really significant in the ancient civilizations of Egypt and different Mesopotamian civilizations were the similarities and differences between the religious, public works, and governmental aspects. When archeologists look at two different civilizations they often use the skill of comparison.

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    According to them, communities believed that everything was created by different gods and ruled by them. At first there was only fresh (Apsu) and salt (Tiamat) water. Later, outgrew of these gods created everything else, for instance, components of nature such as mountains, forests, and features of humans such as wisdom, intelligence, anger and so on. Another most mentioned god was the Marduk, which was served many main temples. It was believed that Marduk was one of the gods who created the new world by winning the battles among the other gods (Heidel, 1952, p. 153).

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    With the rivers located just by ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia, both civilizations’ culture depended on agriculture, and were formed around agricultural communities which supplied them with food. In Egypt, the annual flooding of the Nile contributed to their development in agriculture, while Mesopotamians depended on the Euphrates river, which was less dependable than the Nile because of its unpredictable flooding. The flooding of the two rivers in ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia left a fertile layer of soil, making it easier to plant crops and allowing both communities to depend on their rivers for

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    They had very rich soil, which gave humans a reason to settle in mesopotamia and begin farming. People were living in the area called the "Fertile Crescent" to take advantage of the rich soil.. Mesopotamia's rich soil helped humans to settle in one place to farm. So they wouldn't be nomads and go from place to place .

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    “The plains flood when the river rises, and is blessed with the riches that brings people merriment.” ( Egypt Mesopotamia Comparison Essay, page 1). For the majority Mesopotamia and Egypt were both agricultural civilizations. Due to the geographical features, life from these two civilization were crucially rely on their rivers. However, the Nile were far more significant to the Egyptians than the Tigris and Euphrates do to Mesopotamia.

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    Without these inventions, Mesopotamia would not be so developed. The plough changed many of the people 's lives in Mesopotamia. The plough helped us grow crops, such as corn, wheat, and vegetables. It helped increase the food surplus, and helped population grow. It also helped us domesticate animals, such as the cow.

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    In Egypt the authority of government was created around 3100 B.C.E. from an individual named Menes which later caused for the authority of Egypt to be in the hands of Pharaohs during the Archaic Period (3100-2600 B.C.E.) and Old Kingdom (2660-2180 B.C.E). Pharaohs of the Archaic Period and Old Kingdom An example of a pharaoh that ruled Egypt would be Pharaoh Ahmosis, which during his reign from 1500 B.C.E had the full authority of Egypt. Using his power he had expelled the invaders of Egypt known as the Hyksos and had reunited Egypt. However, in Mesopotamia the

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    They both believed in gods and afterlife, but their characterization was very much unalike. Differences in their religious believes serving ones’ individual needs were important in demonstrating the religious impact in Mesopotamian and Ancient Egyptian Civilizations. Therefore, I shall discusses the geography, government, and art in Mesopotamia and Ancient Egypt civilizations. Geography played a big role in both Mesopotamian and Ancient Egyptian civilization. When it came to agriculture, Mesopotamia in the beginning of civilization was rich in cereal and grains but lacked stone and materials, while Egypt was rich with sandstone, limestone, and granite; perfect elements for the creation of materials, and cultivating mostly emmer and barley (Faltas, 2018).

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    Ancient River Valley Civilizations Computers, airplanes, space travel, and huge cities, how did we get here? It all started with the ancient river valley civilizations of Mesopotamia, Egypt, China, and the Indus River Valley. When comparing these ancient civilizations what did they all have in common? What made them unique?

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    Around 3500 to 3100 BCE, the rise of civilizations occurred in two different regions; one in Mesopotamia, another in Egypt. Mesopotamia was a vast open region between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers. Egypt was an isolated region along the Nile that runs from South to North. Blessed by the surrounding rivers, these two remarkable ancient civilizations of Mesopotamia and Egypt developed socially, politically and culturally with unique features. Both Mesopotamia and Egypt were similar in having a social class system to distinguish between different classes, as well as people’s value towards religion, and finally having the ability to pass information effectively.

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    There are many similarities and differences in their political characteristics, social/cultural characteristics, and economic characteristics. First, Mesopotamia and Egypt are both similar and different to India politically. In the Middle East, Mesopotamia had independent city-states governed by monarchs, and Egypt had Pharaohs rule the kingdoms as gods. A monarch would a king or a queen, and Pharaohs

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