Mesopotamia and Egypt were early river valley civilizations. Archaeologists have discovered an incredible amount of information about them, and in that research many similarities and differences about the civilization’s religions stood out. Both Mesopotamian and Egyptian religions were polytheistic and believed in an afterlife, however Mesopotamians viewed gods as human-like and had grim views of life after death, while Egyptians viewed gods as a cross between humans and animals and had brighter views concerning their afterlife.
Both Mesopotamia and Egypt were polytheistic civilizations. Mesopotamians believed in gods such as Utu, the sun god, and Ereshkigal, the god of the afterlife (Mesopotamia ppt). It was likely that Mesopotamians did …show more content…
In Mesopotamia, people believed in the “Land of No Return,” where there was no happiness and people ate clay (32). This was probably because the Tigris and the Euphrates, the rivers that Mesopotamia was built between, were often unpredictable, which caused floods to ruin crops and destroy villages. Mesopotamians assumed that gods controlled these floods, and since the gods weren’t very good to them while they were living, they wouldn’t be kinder once they were dead. In Egypt, on the other hand, people believed in a beautiful afterlife. They mummified bodies, a process of drying out and preserving corpses, to ensure that people's bodies were at their best even after death. They buried bodies with valuable possessions that the person would use in the Other Life (38). The Egyptians probably believed in a nice underworld because their life wasn’t as hard as it was for Mesopotamians. The Nile River was much more predictable than the Tigris and the Euphrates, and the floods were always expected. This allowed Egyptians to use the flooding in their favor, making for a better life, resulting in hopes of a better underworld. Mesopotamians did not expect much from their afterlife, while Egyptians had high hopes.
Although Egypt and Mesopotamia were both ancient river valley civilizations, their cultures were unique in their own ways. While they were both polytheistic and believed …show more content…
Ed. Julie L. Carnagie, et al. Vol. 1: Almanac. Detroit: UXL, 2007. World History in Context. Web. 11 Oct.
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”The ancient Egyptians believed that life on earth was only one part of an eternal journey which ended, not in death, but in everlasting joy. When one's body failed, the soul did not die with it but continued on toward an afterlife where one received back all that one had thought lost. ”(World History, P1) The soul needed a body to live in the afterlife, so the Egyptians believed in mummification to preserve the body. The body was believed to be the home of the soul, and the soul needed a body to be recognizable to the gods in the afterlife.
People of Ancient Mesopotamia viewed their gods as being unreliable like their rivers. Life was likely better for Egyptians during this period because they did not have to worry as much about survival, whereas peoples
Thesis Statement: Mesopotamians and Hebrews are depicted as very different when it comes to religious beliefs, but actually seem to have many similarities in many ways and has led to many of their laws and social stratification correlating. Topic Sentence 1: Since the ancient Hebrews were Monotheistic and the Mesopotamians were Polytheistic, they are naturally assumed to be completely unlike each other; that is simply not the case with these specific civilizations. Topic Sentence 2: The Gods or God in both the Polytheistic and Monotheistic religions have similar traits, but the beliefs of the civilians in both cultures can be viewed as different.
The ancient Egyptians believed that people and nature are ruled by powerful gods. As Taylor says in his book “Death and the Afterlife in Ancient Egypt”, the Egyptians believed that the universe consisted of three types of beings: the gods, the living, and the dead. Egyptians connected everything happening in their life in terms of relationship between
The Ancient Israelites and the Mesopotamians are both early societies in the Middle East. These societies have similar social similarities, such as having the society being patriarchal. They also had the same political laws such as men were recognized as the head of the household. Another similarity is with inheritance. Usually men would inherit property, money, or other values.
Religion played an important role in civilization as government laws and divine kingship derived from it. Both civilizations were quite similar, but acquired some differences unique to each civilization. These differences include the environment, divine kingship, and sense of security from either nature or law. The idea and practices of ancient Mesopotamia originated from the Sumerians. Moreover, both Mesopotamian and Egyptian civilization diffused their practices and ideas to other ancient civilizations like the Hebrews and the Greeks.
Despite a steady trading relationship, Mesopotamian and Egyptian societies have very dissimilar views on life and the afterlife. Indeed, Mesopotamian civilization certainly had much stricter views of life and the afterlife. This is likely a reflection of the frequent nature of wars and violence in this highly urbanized society (83). As a result, their views of the fragility of their mortality seemed to be pessimistically realistic. They seemed to accept that their gods gave them this life and nothing else.
In conclusion, although the religions of ancient Egypt and China differentiated on the belief of exactly who they worshiped. In comparison both civilizations were dependent upon the religious moral values implemented by a their divine being, bodily preservation, and the belief of Afterlife
The Egyptians and Mayans had many similarities and differences. Each was affected differently by their surroundings, yet their religious beliefs were very similar. This affected how each empire would grow, eventually collapse, and influence the future. Both architecture styles were used by settlers who took over the massive empires and farming techniques are still used till this day. However, the spiritual beliefs of both cultures were not passed down.
The most significant factor that influenced the development of ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia was their geography, because their locations by large rivers led the civilizations to produce an abundance of food, leading to a population increase and for several cities to form which influenced the cultural, economic, and political influence of both civilizations. The flooding within both ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia allowed their agriculture to thrive Mapping sentence for culture. Mapping sentence for economic. Mapping sentence for Political. Transition.
Egypt created the practice of mummification, but according to hieroglyphics, even this procedure was highly regarded as being watched over and conducted by the gods. When any person died, peasant or Pharaoh, they had to attempt to pass into the afterlife. This religious journey was presided over by Thoth, the Egyptian god of Wisdom. Thoth weighed your soul after death and then decided if you were worthy to pass on to the afterlife. If not, Your soul was given to Set, the god of the dead and the Underworld.
Although the Mesopotamians and Egyptians of 3500 to 1500 B.C.E. were similar due to social hierarchy and power roles, nevertheless, the differences between Mesopotamians and Egyptians are evident with politics. This is because of the way Egyptians saw opposing countries as enemies and how Mesopotamians saw other countries as trading partners. The Mesopotamians viewed their priests as extremely powerful people, believing that priests were connected spiritually to the gods and worked hard to appease the gods. The priests would use this to their advantage. For example, selling amulets to citizens to ‘ward off evil spirits’ was just a business move for the priests to make more money and keep their power.
The Egyptian Middle Kingdom and Babylonia had many similarities related in geography. Despite this they also had numerous distinct differences. Fundamental similarities manifested as care for the people by the rulers which had recently developed in both societies. As the rulers were no longer concerned with only themselves, but the citizens as well. Both societies had military protection although Babylon organized and conquered the Fertile Crescent and later Egypt.
The Book of the Dead shows that Egyptians are more serious about the afterlife then life on Earth. They believed that the Book of the Dead was the book for the deceased. Therefore, they believed that the Book of the Dead will help achieve the afterlife. Preparing for the afterlife was a big part of the Egyptian religion. They spent a lot of time and money on preparing their tombs and making sure they would have all the stuff they needed in the afterlife.