The health and well being of the human race is closely tied up with the quality of water used (Sharma et al, 2005 and Venkateswaran, 2011). Water quality has direct impact on public health (Kumar,2003 and Arunabh Misra et al,2010). People on globe are under tremendous threat due to undesired changes in the water quality parameters such as physical, chemical and biological characteristics of air, water and soil. These undesirable changes due to pollution caused by the addition of organic and inorganic materials from non point sources such as sewage, food waste, farm effluent, through drainage ditches, including artificial fertilizer residues, insecticides, herbicides, pesticides and farmyard waste, in addition from point sources such as electroplating, pesticide, fertilizer and beverage industries. Addition to these, disposal of dead bodies, discharge of industrial and sewage wastes and agricultural runoff, which are major cause of ecological damage and pose serious health hazards (Meitei et al., 2004a).
Water is quickly becoming a scarce resource in certain countries. The textile industry uses varying amounts of good quality water in the various steps in wet processing. Tons of water is necessary in the first and important step which is the pretreatment process of textiles. Water is also used in the chemical treatment of the fabrics for the aesthetic and function of the products. Huge amounts of water is used in the dyeing machines. Non-fixed dyestuffs and auxiliary chemicals need to be washed off to
A buffer solution minimises change in PH of a solution when small amounts of acid or alkali are added to the solution, with an an acidic buffer solutions maintaining a PH<7 (ChemGuide, 2017). It works through an equilibrium, so if the concentration of H+ or OH- are changed, equilibrium will shift to oppose this change and return solution PH to original value.
Acid deposition is a serious regional problem occurring near and in many areas downwind from coal burning power plants, smelters, factories, and large urban areas according to Miller (1998). SO2 is emitted primarily by stationary sources such as power plants that burn fossil fuels whereas NOx are emitted by both stationary and mobile sources such as automobiles. How serious vegetation and aquatic life in nearby lakes are affected by receiving acid deposition depends on the alkalinity or acidity of its soils. In some areas, soils contain enough calcium ions (Ca2+) and magnesium ions (Mg+2) that are attached to the negatively charged minerals in the soil to neutralise or buffer
Treating wastewater is extremely vital to the health and well-being of eco-systems all around the world. The treatment of wastewater is a fairly modern concept, though collection systems to remove foul-smelling water were common in ancient Rome, it was not until the 19th century that urbanized areas began to realize that removing the pollutants from the water that they were discharging into the environment was extremely important. (1) The reason that this became so relevant was a direct result of populations becoming so concentrated by the late 1800’s that outbreaks of life-threatening illnesses were being linked to bacteria found in the polluted water. (1) As a result of this, the practice of wastewater collection and treatment was developed
Will cookies bake the same if baking powder is used instead of baking soda? This is an interesting question because if baking powder can replace baking soda, it eliminates the need for both items. It also raises the question regarding if these two ingredients are different. If they are, what different effects will they have on cookies? The hypothesis for this experiment is, if baking powder is used instead of baking soda, then the cookies will not rise.
The trend between increasing temperature and amount of leaching was rather unexpected since the rate at which Mg2+ and Ca2+ leached out of the spinach cells started to slow down at higher temperatures of approximately 45ºC and 50ºC. After
Environmental pollution through the discharge of toxic heavy metal ions considered one of the most important issues that threat all biological systems including human, animal and plant kingdoms. For this reason, several attempts have been made for effective removal of these metal ions, particularly from industrial wastewater [1, 2]. As a pollutant, mercury (Hg) regarded as an extremely poisonous heavy metal with enormous harmful effect on our health . Numerous studies confirmed that sever medical diseases could be related to long term exposure to Hg2+ ions. Mercuric ions biomethylation could retain in blood and continuously deposit in some organs like kidneys, liver or brain and consequently cause chronic diseases ended with death [4, 5]. That is why, it is very necessary to continuously develop novel techniques for fast detection and extraction of mercury from aqueous media.
Basic soda is chemically sodium bicarbonate and commonly it is called the famous baking soda. It is a naturally occurring substance present in the intestine of living organism and is highly helpful in digestion and avoiding stomach disturbances as it helps living things to maintain the pH balance necessary for life and metabolism. Physically sodium bicarbonate is a white crystalline solid having no odor. It is soluble in water (93.4 g/L at 20°C and pH = 8.4) and undergoes a complete dissociation into sodium and bicarbonate ions, it is non-volatile and decomposes at temperatures greater than 50°C.
Water pollution is defined as the water contamination due to the direct or indirect pollutant that were discharge into river and contamination of the chemical that was not properly treated to remove harmful compound.
Thus ,the amount of organic precursors including the algal load in the drinking water to be treated , water temperature and pH, the amount and type of chemical disinfectants, and the stage in the process
(The carbon dioxide comes from the lungs during exhalation. Carbonic acid is a weak acid and is therefore in equilibrium with bicarbonate in solution. When sig- nificant amounts of both carbonic acid and bicarbonate are present, a buffer is formed, because they neutralize each other.)
Chromium pollution has a major impact on the environment and restoring contaminated soil is difficult.
For explanation of reactions occurring in non-protonic solvents such as COCl2, SO2,N2O4… the protonoic definition can not be used.
By the year 2025, the Philippines is believed to be brought to a water crisis if no new sources of water are developed or found to meet the growing demand of the citizens. (Sapnu, R., Balabo, D., & Cervantes, D., 2007) "There is a Japan International Cooperation Agency study that says that if we will not conserve water, there may be some problems. But of course we can always start conserving now and look for other sources," Lopez (2013) said. Studies have shown how water conservation and appropriate water utilization are significant as early as today.