In 2007, 13.8 percent of females were poor compared to the 11.1 percent of men. Women living in high-income countries such as the United States give birth with the help of medical attention, but for low-income countries this is usually not the case. The Death Toll in poverty by race causes the population of many poor Americans to double 25 percent every year. There are a lot of drawbacks to those who have low-income such as housing stability and economic development. Even with economic development, working conditions are harder due to Global income.
A lack of attention to water conservation and protection as well as a lack of awareness about the significant role of water management in China’s economic and social development has led to ineffective and poor water management throughout the years (Global water partnership, 2015). In addition, poor quality water monitoring and water administration in rural China are also key issues that the Chinese government are trying to solve (Global water partnership, 2015. However, to treat domestic wastewater in rural areas is a major challenge. According to a study about China’s rural water management (Yu, et. al., 2015), a lack of sewage piping systems has forced sewage from private toilets to be discharged into local water bodies, posing the local ecosystem to serious health risk and environmental risk.
With the great need of medical services, there is a limited of healthcare services and professional to provide the necessary care. Many of the rural hospitals are relatively small and are limited to the types of specialty services they provide (Choi, 2012). Also, the medical workforce is declining in rural communities, many doctors have retired and retaining and recruiting of medical professionals has been a challenge (Choi, 2012). In addition, another issue most rural residents are faced with is transportation. Many residents live greater than 30 miles away from the nearest healthcare facility and 60 or more miles away from specialty care facilities (Choi, 2012).
According to Mooney et al., rural veterans travel farther to VHA hospitals than to non-VHA hospitals because of the 153 VHA hospitals in existence less than 38 of them are located in rural or highly rural areas. Buzza et. al., found three themes that influenced rural veterans ability to obtain VHA healthcare; the first is predictably distance, which is influenced by such things as age, health and functionality. Many elderly and disabled veterans can no longer drive and may not have access to public transportation or people who are willing to drive them such great
They will need to look at other provinces, states or countries for food supplies. Small islands can also be vulnerable to things such as the weather. Small islands are also at a disadvantage due to high transport and communication costs, along with the threat of major disasters that is of special concern
For both the uninsured group and those who are eligible for government assistance because of their low economic position, access to health is limited by the number of private providers willing to treat them. In many cases private providers are linked to particular private health insurance companies and won 't accept patients outside their network. These people must then rely on the overburdened public health system for care, and as such usually only seek treatment in emergencies. The public health system, while filled with competent staff, is nevertheless restricted by its funding and can therefore not always provide all these patients with the best quality of care. The inequality in health care access is a continuing issue in America and as such it is important for future consumers and workers on the Foothill College campus to have a thorough understanding of the issue so they can move to improve the problem in the
2.4.0 Health worker challenges contributing to low TB case detection 2.4.1 Logistics and supply chain system. Screening and diagnosis of TB cases in the various health facilities is to a large extent dependent on the availability of adequate logistic. Lack of screening tools has been cited as a major challenge contributing to missed opportunities with regards to TB care (Dimitrova, 2006; Ngadaya et al., 2009; Artawan Eka Putra et al., 2013). Ngadaya et al ( 2009), further reported that there were occasions when guidelines for TB case detection were not existent and even places where they existed, staff did not know about them and hence contributed to low TB case detection. 2.4.2 Contextual (client) challenges affecting TB case
According to Page-Reeves et al.,(2013), fear of cost is not something that the individuals with health insurance or adequate incomes experienced. The uninsured minority face health problem because they cannot afford to pay for health care. Many of them are not working and even managing to buy thing for their basic needs first than to think of health care, which results to health problems being untreated and undiagnosed at the earlier stage and can lead to chronic health problems. The predicament then will develops to more difficult health problems later on in
Although the share of black children in segregated schools had dropped to 62.9 percent by the early 1980s, the subsequent lack of commitment by the federal government and multiple Supreme Court decisions antagonistic to school desegregation have led to a reversal," notes EPI. Why does that matter? "Promoting school integration is important because — now as a half century ago — segregated schools are unequal schools," the report adds. "The more non-white students a school has the fewer resources it has. A 10 percent-point increase in the share of non-white students in a school is associated with a $75 decrease in per student spending."
There are over 0.2 million people registered as rural people, who are the main source of migrant workers in China. “Hu Kou” system not only restrict these migrant workers from rural area to have the same social welfare as urban residents. Their children cannot receive high school education instead of in local province, their medical insurance is different, the average pension is less. It is also hard to apply the relevant bureaucracies for permission and the provals are tightly controlled. Besides, “Hu Kou ”system also result the discriminations of these rural residents, they are regarded as low education and cheap labour in big cities.
According to table1, New England had a comparatively low slavery rate. There were 5771 slaves during 1790-1860. New England colonies primarily use slaves for household purpose. They did not have the huge slave population. On the other hand, Middle Colonies had 26.5% more slaves than New England colonies around 153,020 slaves.
Disparities are all around us and can account for inequality that is seen among different race, in education, business, politics and even healthcare. Inequality can affect all aspects of a person’s life. In the United States it is unfortunate that every citizen is not privy to the same quality of healthcare. This is one of the major challenges and growing issues for the United States healthcare system. The gap in care is derived from racial, ethnic, gender differences in populations.
Health disparity is a common phrase used in the medical world. The term refers to the relationship between individual health and one's race and ethnicity. We are aware that race and ethnic background plays a role into in health status, health outcomes and life expectancy (). An example of this is how African Americans has higher prevalence of hypertension than other populations and tend to develop hypertension at an earlier age (). Research shows that this is due to a combination of genetic and environmental factors that are manipulated by an individual’s race ().
One of the issues that the United States is currently facing is health inequality and disparity among minority groups. Health disparity focuses at the differences in health status between different social groups, gender, race, ethnicity, education, and income. Unfortunately, health disparities are affecting minority groups in society. These groups include African Americans, Hispanics, and American Indians/Alaska Natives. For people in these racial/ethnic minority populations, health disparities can mean lower life expectancy, and loss of economic opportunities.
This webinar is a presentation on the race associated differences in health, how they come to be, and some flaws inherent in the available initiatives to address these issues. First to speak was Kumanyika (2015) who utilized health outcomes parameters such as excess deaths, Life Expectancy at birth, Low birth weight, Infant mortality and Years of potential life lost before 75years, in order to illustrate the overall improvement in the health outcomes of the general populace between 1985 till 20012. However quite glaring in these data is the persistent racial disparity in health existing with the minorities having health outcomes that are worse than the white population. Shamika attributed this trends to the inadequacy in the initiates that