Coral reef ecosystems depend a lot on light attenuation because that is how they grow and survive. Different reef ecosystems vary depending on how deep because of the amount of light that is traveling through the water column. The linear regression on Figures 1 and 2 determined the diffuse attenuation coefficient for downwelling plane irradiance (Kd) which is the exponent of the equation on figure 1. The Kd value found using the light data from the experiment was 0.281 1/m. This value is in the normal range usually seen of 0.1-0.4, which means that light disappears faster with depth.
Some of these movements will be below the ocean, which will automatically force out an enormous amount of seawater. All that water will shoot up and then come crashing down, with one side charging towards the west and the other towards the east. Within 15 minutes of the earthquake, that 700-mile liquid wall will hit the Northwest coast. It is predicted that the combination of the earthquake and the tsunami, will result in 13,000 people killed and the Pacific Northwest totally wiped out and destroyed. Not only is it terrifying that the odds of this big hit are one in ten, but also the fact that people are not even preparing for this natural disaster.
Tsunamis happen when the plates on the crust of the earth move, therefore moving the entire plate so that the water rises and is pushed forward, therefore causing a tsunami (Drohan, 2009, p.21). These tectonic plates are everywhere, under everything from the biggest mountain to the smallest hill. Though it is infrequent, volcanoes have been known to cause tsunamis. It happens when to volcano begins to erupt, but instead of coming out from the top of the volcano a lateral blast shoots out from the side. Next, a quickly moving avalanche of lava pours into the water near it causing the wave to travel to distant coastlines (Springer, 2005).
00Earthquakes occur almost daily due to the fact that Costa Rica lies between two tectonic plates: the Carribean plate and the Coicos plate. These two plates push and shove each other causing small tremors throughout which can cause landslides,volcanic eruptions and once in a couple years, quakes with devastating results. The strongest earthquake recorded occurred in 1991 with a measure of 7.6 on the Richter scale. This earthquake left 4 dead and buildings as well as bridges and road were completely destroyed. If another Earthquake occurs, the coastal cities would be the most affected ones as they are closer to the plates.
• A mixing of airs between the Atlantic storm and Prevailing Winds caused an abnormally high level of rainfall in the period. Effects Primary Social- 75 cars, 5 caravans, 6 buildings and several boats were washed into the sea. Many people were also left homeless overnight having to sleep in abandoned homes. Roads were blocked disallowing rescue helicopters to land near the stranded
While anyone who was remaining was pressured in this volcanic ash for century’s and Pompeii buried in ash. People who were alive were not so good because they had nothing no family or possessions. Though in 1944 March 18th Mount Vesuvius erupted again in World War 2, which impacted people a lot destroying parts of town as lava got shot out of Mount Vesuvius. This eruption wasn’t good because it went on for about 2 weeks before it finished. On the first day of the eruption on the 18th Mount Vesuvius made it rain rocks which were large, this covered the towns in metres of ash, lava and debris.
When megathrusts occur, the water above would be displaced. This cause waves to be created on the surface of the water and they can propagate over long distances. The waves also travel faster and creates larger crest when they encounter shallow waters (lecture 8, slide 13). Therefore, the tsunami wave can reach great heights when it hit the shore. Being close to the shoreline at a subduction zone can be very dangerous if a megathrust occurs.
Which 40% of the houses, farms, livestock are destroyed during Valdivia earthquakes, also they are 1,655 people dead, 3,000 injured, 2,000,000 homeless and $550 million damage. So for the Alaska earthquake, are also known as the Great Alaskan Earthquake, the Portage Earthquake and the Good Friday Earthquake. This earthquakes is a largest earthquake that happened in North America and the second most powerful earthquake recorded in history. Which the earthquakes event are killed 131 people, and 119 people are die because of tsunami while this damage are cost $311 million in 1964
Over one thousand otter carcasses were found and an estimated two thousand eight hundred died from the spill. As a direct result of the spill, roughly three hundred harbour seals died. The oil spill later on caused a collapse of the Pacific Herrings’ population because nearly half of their eggs laid in 1989 were exposed to the oil (Liszka 1-30). These deadly outcomes changed their environment
The developments of the plates in the world 's hull cause them. These plates don 't generally move easily and can stall out, bringing on a development of weight. It is the point at which this weight is discharged that a tremor happens. Thusly, a tremor under the water can likewise bring about a wave, as the shudder causes incredible waves by pushing vast volumes of water to the surface. Tidal waves can likewise be created by submerged volcanic ejections.
If a major earthquake or landslide occurs close to shore, the first wave in a series could reach the beach in a few minutes, even before a warning is issued. Drowning is the most common cause of death associated with a tsunami. Tsunami waves and the receding water are very destructive to structures in the run-up zone. Other hazards include flooding, contamination of drinking water, and fires from gas lines or
Discussions and Findings What impact are chemicals currently having on Corals and fish species on the Great Barrier Reef? The impacts of chemicals on the Great Barrier Reef are far beyond what is first expected. The reef is subject to effects of sediment, nutrients and chemical pollutants that currently effect 25% of the worlds coral reefs (Amelia S. Wenger, 2015), including the Great Barrier Reef. These three effects result in a decline in water quality, which is due to an increase in nutrients caused by fertilisers, herbicides, insecticides and sewage. This particular cause for water quality results in the increase and spread of algae and other organisms that compete with coral (Amelia S. Wenger, 2015).
After a tsunami, a large wall of water follows behind it and takes many objects with it back to the ocean. What damage did the Boxing Day tsunami cause? The Boxing Day tsunami destroyed parts of Indonesia, Shri Lanka, India, Thailand, Maldives, and Somalia killing about 230,000 people. It happened in 2004 on Dec. 26. The approximated cost to fix the
An earthquake is a shaking of a part of the earth’s surface, often causing great damage. (merriam webster.com) Earthquakes kill approximately 8,000 people each year. An average earthquake only lasts about one minute. (Randomhistory.com) Earthquakes are important and relevant because of the lives they take and the damage they cause. On 1960, May 22 the strongest earthquake hit off the southern coast of Chile.
In Yakima alone, it took 10 weeks to remove all the ash that had fallen. The volcano continued to erupt for 6 years after the initial blast. Violently at first, then slowly leaking lava that has now formed a lava dome that is 920 feet high (USGS). The eruption and secondary natural disasters served as hazards as they harmed and affected the people living nearby. This affliction to human health and well being has enabled policy change to better protect people living near this massive natural hazard.