Gozon, Cherie Ann O. PhD Media Studies Media 210 While the main premise of both libertarianism and social responsibility is freedom, but the specific context as to what kind of freedom they uphold and its underlying conditions as to the press’ content, accountability, operations, and audience response are different. Libertarianism of the press encourages a high regard for freedom of the press to the point that they publish any information – be it good or bad – and trusts the audience’s mental capacity to distinguish facts and opinions from fabricated information. (Campbel, Martin & Fabos, 2012) This theory believes that the press has the responsibility to divulge all information – no censorship, whatsoever – for public consumption. It also believes that people have the mental capacity to understand and interpret media messages. Because libertarianism strongly pushes for freedom of the press, this theory makes accountability and ethics optional.
The light is of great importance in the storytelling process. The actors and environment are usually given equal lighting emphasis to such a degree that the characters’ world becomes a character in of itself, this was in contrast to one of the norms established by Warner Bros. in which the characters were starkly accentuated by shadows. Paul Schrader states that this cinematographic choice it “creates a fatalistic hopeless mood. There is nothing the protagonist can do; the city will outlast and even negate his best efforts.” (7, Schrader) Steady composition is prefered over physical action.The cinematography moves the actor, which as opposed to the actors moving the cinematography. The protagonist tends to be a male of ambiguous moral standing.
There are many tools at hand to get one’s voice out to the public, and film is simply one of them, but a powerful one at that. Film grabs the close attention of the audience, but also makes them oblivious to the techniques that are influencing them—mise-en-scène, camera work, sound, editing. It all comes together as both a work of art and message. When that message is one of freedom, movies such as Medium Cool, The Great Dictator, and Dr. Strangelove cause the viewers to reflect on reality. Respectively, these three films have spoken on behalf of freedom from political upheaval, the wrath of unjust rulers, and the dangers of war.
Consequently, advertisers are seizing every opportunity to draw attention even boldly using shocking images since the average advertisement is not eye-catching enough. However, it is controversial whether the method of shocking advertising is a necessity in today’s society. Due to the grand variety it is favourable for advertisements to stand out among each other. It is then crucial to catch the consumer’s attention, hence using different methods such as bold colours, a jingle or shocking images. Even Fogul (2002, as cited by Chan et al., 2007) claimed that advertisers are boldly balancing between a small degree of “edgy” and “offensive” to draw
Not just a temporal re-ordering of a film, but rather films of a more avant-garde style that cannot be interpreted by previous experience. In a general sense, avant-garde cinema will break conventions and as such it could be explained as their use of unique semiotics, often being what differentiates the films that fall under that category. The conventional production techniques are still used within the Avant-garde, but the stark differences to what normative spectators expect is where we find this kind of disconnect. Usually this comes from the vision of the director, but the issue here is that if it truly is Avant-garde, a spectator can then only truly learn the codified semiotics per director and thus has to re-learn a style with each different director to comprehend the film. Hence a semiotic explanation to this could be argued to be too simplistic, it is not merely acquiring the new code-based schemata, because truly avant-garde films will not have the same codification.
Everything in this universe communicates. Cinema, too, has its own communication patterns. It is a language system in itself. “Film is not a language in the sense that English, French, or Mathematics is …. But film is very much like a language.” “The penetrating eye f the camera helps to eternalize the object it sees, and the strength of the film lies in its giving a clear representation detail.” One way to analyze the film language is to compare it with other communicative arts.
Representations in very realistic ways in mass media such as films play a very crucial role in effecting people’s behavior towards other groups. (S. Ramasubramanian, 2005). The negative portrayal of any nation is lethal and seductive during conflicts. In such time the “other” nations and cultures are presented as non-civilized. Movies always transmit selected representations of reality to
Censoring of information may lead to a wrong image perceived by the public. It gives rise to and hides abuse of human rights. An exemplary example of censorship in India is the Central Board of Film Certification or Censor Board, which comes under the purview of Ministry of Information and Broadcasting. The Board often allows directors to remove anything it feels offensive. It assigns certification as Universal, Adults, and Parental Guidance to films in India before public exhibition.
However, this right is not absolute. Article 19 (2) adds the rider that this freedom can be subjected to “reasonable restrictions… in the interests of the sovereignty and integrity of India, the security of the State, friendly relations with foreign States, public
Press freedom. Press freedom, or freedom of the media is the freedom of communication and expression through mediums including various published material and electronic media. Freedom of press is the right to publish newspapers, magazines, and other printed matter without governmental restriction and subject only to the laws or libel, inattentively, sedition. In addition, it also means the right to circulate opinions in print without censorship by the government (freedom of press: 2013). History of press freedom South Africa has a long history of oppression and suppression.