This argument is not wrong; after all, Sartre’s stance is deeply rooted in ontology and Nagel’s in psychology. In fact, in his paper, Nagel even notes while Sartre’s notion is quite intelligent it is ultimately doomed to fail. This is due to the fact that Sartre’s notion of one reducing the Other to simply an object or subject is ultimately ‘unstable’, and thus nullifying the concepts of both ‘successful sexual relation(s)’ (20) and perversion. This idea of no possibility of success in Sartre’s notion is also alluded to by Rosalyn Diprose in her article ‘Generosity: Between Love and Desire’. Here, she describes how Sartre’s notion ‘deadens (the) possibilities’ of both oneself and the Other (Diprose, 7), by which she means that by reducing a body to flesh one removes its ‘situation’ (6).
Interrupting her “open book” by commenting “I think I’ve got good judgement” (175) and commenting later on about how she would study psychology especially “cause I’ve got good listening skills” (178) , is an accurate display of how her illusion of herself differs in great magnitude from how she is perceived by others. Due to her inability to accurately self reflect and represent, her capacity for change, improvements and growth are stunted, for one can not fix a problem they do not know is present. However, not only is her self perception imprecise and unreliable, Sylvia is also unable to comprehend social cues from others which provide feedback with respects to the response evoked by her disposition. Failing to respect her company’s explicit refusal to her invasion of his personal space, Sylvia “starts giving him a vigorous back massage” (177). Even though she was directly given feedback for her actions, she struggled to respect the simple request.
Basically, there is no concrete conclusion behind how to define identity. This is the main problem. Within this problem is another issue which is the fact that most philosophers disagree with each other and no one can come to a consensus. Descartes has his theory of sameness of soul which simply means you are a free-thinking substance. Then there is Locke who believes in sameness of consciousness.
One of the main ideas that emerges in Jean-Paul Sartre’s existential philosophy is that human “existence precedes essence”. Recently, a similar notion has appeared in transhumanism, defined as a movement that “promotes an interdisciplinary approach to understanding and evaluating the opportunities for enhancing the human condition and the human organism opened up by the advancement of technology” (Bostrom, 1). In particular, transhumanist leader Nick Bostrom characterizes human nature as a “work in progress, a half baked beginning that we can learn to remold in desirable ways” (Bostrom, 1). When compared to Sartre’s “existence precedes essence”, Bostrom’s transhumanist slogan seems to be stating the same idea. Sartre believes there to be
Over time, Nick’s obsession with wealth significantly affects his own behavior and lifestyle. All four authors illuminate the insidious effects of exceptionalism on the “other” and underscore the self-regulation that American society impresses upon its citizens. The concepts of void and ambiguity illustrate how American society perpetuates its apparent exceptionalism, but this coercion sustains an underlying panopticism — or a pressure to live up to one’s assumed role in the system. Naylor, Plath, Salinger, and Lee each investigate this phenomenon through their respective character explorations of sexuality, gender, youth individualism, and
A critique may say that her self-correcting nature makes St. Teresa seem uncertain and skeptical. This would make her claims to appear questionable. However, when one looks deeply into her character and to the context of her writings, it is apparent that her self-correction in no ways undermines the goals of her writing. In fact, her constant questioning may strengthen her project. St. Teresa can be seen as modest of her experiences with God and wants to take the story seriously and would not want to undermine her project by presenting it in a true light.
An example of in-itself bad faith Sartre uses is that of a woman who has consented to go out with a man (Sartre 96). The woman is fully aware of the man’s intentions of her, and she will eventually have to commit to responsibility and make a decision, but she wants to postpone this inevitability. She dismisses compliments by disarming them of their “sexual background” through the night, which are initial acts of bad faith. Later on in the evening the man lays his hand in hers, which seemingly halts the woman's procrastination of responsibility as she now must make a decision. If she is to leave her hand, she is consenting, and if she is to pull her hand back she is resisting and could ruin the atmosphere of the hour.
The perception of authenticity can be described as the notion that people ask questions about the substance of directorial standards of society, and consequently they discard certain behavioural enigmas of the society which they belong to. (Khaladkar).Holden dislikes being an inauthentic and displays aggravation towards ignorance, immorality, superficiality and hypocrisy; subsequently he begins his existential quest for authenticity. Holden reacts against privileged predators such as Stradlater Ward in Chapter 6, where he describes Stradlater as “ Youre a dirty stupid sonuvabitch of a moron’’ which lead to the fight between him and Stradlater.
Existentialism is a perspective on life where the existence of individuals is meaningless, and it is the individual’s responsibility to imbed purpose and meaning into his or her own life. Authenticity is one of the important characteristics associated with existentialism because of the battle between inauthentic life and authentic life where an individual believes he or she is implementing significance to his or her own life, but is instead blurred from the true meaning of their own existence. Furthermore, authenticity corresponds with boundary situations, which are unavoidable and make an individual muse about life and often pushes the individual to realize that they are living an inauthentic life that is blinded by illusions. Correspondingly, the idea of authenticity is demonstrated through the three distinct characters in the short story “A Clean, Well-Lighted Place”. In Ernest Hemingway’s “A Clean, Well-Lighted Place”, the author suggests that as age progresses and one gets older, it becomes apparent that one’s existence is meaningless because of the individual’s transition from an inauthentic life, to an authentic life.