Ventriloquism and the Vernacular with Special Reference to Indian Writing in English Poonam Punia Research Scholor Dept.of English Ch. Devilal University, Sirsa(Haryana) E-mail:firstname.lastname@example.org Abstract. Indian English Writers have a propensity to help and innovate upon the English language to communicate an innate sense regarding, “Indianness”. The ‘Indian English’ in slight ways switch over to conversational and the vernacular into the English. In other words, while writing in English, Indian English Writers articulate through a ventriloquist’s voice.
VARIETIES OF ENGLISH LANGUAGE IN MALAYSIA English was introduced in Malaysia during the British Empire colonialism in Tanah Melayu in the 18th century. According to Prof. Dr. Shanta Nair Venugopal, a professor in School of Language Studies and Linguistics UKM (2000), the learning of English language in Malaysia began as a tool of socio-economic mobility and education enhancement. After independence of Malaysia in 1957, English language has been recognised as the second language in Malaysia. Since then, the role of the English language in Malaysia has expanded to medium for communication and knowledge exchange. Due to the government’s desire to push our country into globalisation, the Malaysian government has been improvising the English language
Cousins in 1883. Later Sreenivasa Iyengar has become the pioneer in his field. In his work The Indian Writing in English he has emphasized his own view of Indo-Anglian literature: What makes Indo-Anglican literature an Indian literature and not just a ramshackle outhouse of English literature is the quality of its ‘Indianness’ in the choice of its subjects, in the texture of thought and play of sentiment, in the texture of thought and play of sentiment, in the organization of material and in the creative use of language. (234) The literary outputs of this period have projected their own native reality to restore the identity and roots that have been lost. Mostly, the writers have
A passage to India by E.M. Forster is a modern novel. It has its own features which recognize it from other ages in English literature. In modern literature, authors often use different symbols to represent a particular concept. Forster also uses symbols to give additional meaning to his novel. The most important symbol in Forster’s novel is the Cave (Marber Cave).
The Indian language of the people, which was called Prakrit, was a mixed language which had influenced in different provinces. N.M.Gill (2013:15) quote Sir George Grierson that “Prakrit may be taken as equivalent to ‘natural’ or ‘colloquial’ in contrast with the Sanskrit which was used mainly for literary purposes. The ‘Apabhramsa’ language was a modification of Prakrit and this process brought various forms of Hindi into current usage’’. Dr. Nazir M.Gill (2013:15) says that ‘the first pattern of Prakrit can be found in religious books on the Jan. Mat and Buddha’s teaching in BC.250. This Prakrit can be found in Pali which had been influenced by the Saurseni and Muttra languages in various places in India.
Chaman Nahal is also another major novelist of name who belongs to this period. After Nineteen eighties is the period of pseudo new fiction which includes new novelists like Salman Rushdie, Vikram Seth, Upamanyu Chatterjee, Shashi Deshpande, Shashi Tharoor, Amitav Ghosh, Amit Choudhary, Arundhati Roy, Kiran Desai, Arvind Adiga and others. These novelists heralded a new eon in the history of Indian English Literature. They experimented with new themes and techniques. Vikram Seth has experimented even with the form of the novel.
For this research, I have selected Famous English poet William Wordsworth and Punjab Poet Bhai Vir Singh. Bhai Vir Singh wrote his poem in Punjabi, but his poetry have been translated in English. Both the poets have their unique identity in their respective literature or even beyond it. A lot of research work have been conducted on William Wordsworth’s
Literature is a composed form of written work having specific quality in form, structure, conveying of emotions, widespread and abiding interest. Sometimes, it is mention as a product of imagination, uniqueness, thoughts, emotions and feelings etc. English Literature is the literature which is composed and written in the English language. English Literature includes literary works not only written by writers from England but also from other parts of the world . It is divided into periods such as The Anglo-Saxon Period, The Medieval Period, English Renaissance or The Elizabethan Period, The Puritan Period, The Period of Neo Classicism, The Romantic Period, The Victorian Period and The Modern Period.
It has developed its own phonological features which are different from those of Standard British English. The English which is spoken in Pakistan is different from that spoken in other regions of the world, and it is regarded as the unique variety which is called Pakistani English (PE). The phonological rules of the British variety of English are usually used in most of the speeches spoken by Pakistani’s but with the nativized characteristics of its own. Since like other post colonial countries, English in Pakistan interacts with regional languages and is localized in pronunciation. (Rahman,
Abstract— India is a large polyglot country; different states have the different regional languages. English is a universal and Hindi is the National Language of Indians. It is not mandatory that each one understands English language and the speakers expect to convey their ideas and messages to their listeners .Machine translation is an area to increase the knowledgeable society of Indians without any language barrier. Machine Translation is a sub division of Natural Language Processing that focuses on translating text from one language to another. We propose a system design which uses English as the source language and Hindi language as the target.