There must be an objective principle underlying willing, one that all rational agents would accept Categorical Imperative According to Kant this is simply the supreme principle or moral law. Furthermore, he explains that every moral agent recognizes whenever accepting an action as morally obligatory. The main question arises here is Why is the categorical imperative “imperative”? Kant’s answer to that is first, human beings are imperfect creatures and hence need rules imposed upon and second, these rules enjoin us to do or not to do something thus we conceive them as necessitating our action “Act only in such a way in which the maxim of action can be rationally willed as a universal law”. But this requires unconditional conformity by all rational beings, regardless of circumstances and, it Is unconditional and applicable at all times Hypothetical Imperative Kants description to this one is illustrated in the following example: “If I want to obtain e, then I must obtain means m.” In other words it says that “If I want to buy a house, then I must work hard to make enough money for a down
But there lies a bigger picture, Kant doesn 't judge the morality of the action per se but adds whether or not the action would be more difficult to perform if everyone performed it. One way to judge the universalizability of an action is to submit it to a test--enter the contradiction and conception test which clearly defines whether or not an action is permissible. The test identifies if the action is consistent--first, the test asks to formulate a maxim and to imagine the world where everyone supports and acts on the respective maxim. The last point on the test asks whether or not the goal of the maxim could be achieved in such a world. If the answer was no, then the maxim couldn 't possibly be
Immanuel Kant was an significant leader in the development of modern philosophy, formulating unique inputs and contributions. Kant constantly pleaded that “the moral worth of an action is to be judged not by its consequences but by the nature of the maxim or principle that motivated the action” (Cahn and Markie, 314). When looking at Kant’s point of view and ideology, he was a leader in deontology believing the theory of the ‘right’. Kant believed that humans of this world should do the right thing for the right reason, instead of doing things for the following consequences or the rewards afterwards. When dissecting Kant’s studies, he believed in the supreme moral principle that is called the Categorical Imperative.
outlook.’’ He critiques Kant’s thought by observing ‘‘every action explicitly calls for a particular content and a specific end, while duty as abstraction entails nothing of the kind.’’ (Hegel Philosophy of Right 134) Hegel contends that the only way Kant can possibly deduce a particular duty is if Kant already accepted certain existing moral opinions or customs as justifiable. For example, it is certainly a contradictory maxim to accept a deposit that is entrusted to me without planning to return it, but it is only contradictory, according to Hegel, if we first accept the notion of property. As regards Kant, he tries to give a pure justification of property, without considering the historical and social circumstances and their possible consequences,
I argue that living spontaneously is not pessimistic. In Mencian view on moral cultivation, it is optimistic that human nature is good, and everyone can be as virtuous as sages. Mencius 6A/7 states that we are the same kind as sages, the only difference is that the sages have already got what the heart is approved of. Mencius 6A/6 and 7A/3 also states that we can get it (morality) if we seek it. Mencius 7A/3 and 7B/24 explicitly argue that morality is natural to us, hence we should treat it as fate, which we cannot control.
To start out we have to understand some of the key concepts of Deontology. Firstly what is a Categorical Imperative? Well according to Robert Johnson who wrote in ‘The Stanford Encyclopaedia of Philosophy’ “it is an imperative because it is a command…It is categorical in virtue of applying to us unconditionally…” so in other words it is moral actions that Kant wants us to apply universally without thought. Second is that of Maxims; Garrath Williams who also wrote in The Stanford Encyclopaedia said “the principle that unity is to be sought after none the less forms (what Kant calls) a ‘maxim’ or regulative principle or reason.” It is also important to keep in mind that according to Kant as told by William Cunningham
Two key principles of ethical leadership include integrity and respect. Integrity is a very valuable principle, by definition integrity is the quality of being moral and honest. Basically, integrity is how you behave when nobody is watching. For example, a person with integrity would not cheat simply because they know nobody would find out. When a leader exhibits and exemplifies this trait, the standards and values of an organization are being successfully reinforced.
I believe that unless a patient has explicitly said that they do not wish to be told bad news, it is a doctor’s duty to tell them the truth. This provides the patient with the most respect for a person and their autonomy. It also allows the patient to make important decisions regarding their own health, relationships, and finances. If the news is very bad, the patient can then decide to reconcile with estranged family members/friends, have the time to write a will, and settle any unfinished business. If the news is not so bad, the patient can decide what treatment path, if any, they wish to
Morality are principles concerning the distinction of good and bad or right and wrong behavior, that influences behavior and worldly views. From different perspectives, morality can be can viewed as being of one 's own conviction, or a natural principle that we should succumb to by the “laws” of nature. Thomas Aquinas and Friedrich Nietzsche are two well known philosopher that twist morality into those groups of morals of being “taste” or “truth”. Aqunas sees morality as a truth that consist of things that contribute or disrupts the nature of things. While Nietzsche viewpoint is directed upon that morality is merely opinion and that “might makes right.” These two conflicting ideas has become an issue in the world today.
John Locke is an enlightened political philosopher whose explanations to his ideas remains profoundly influential. Locke believes people should have the right to do anything they want without the government enforcing them to do a task. In The Second Treatise, Locke discusses some vital concepts of his thinking, beginning with a discussion of the State of Nature. He explains that humans move from a state of nature characterized by perfect freedom and are governed by reason to a civil government in which the authority is vested in a legislative and executive power. In the State of Nature, men are born equal, to have perfect liberty to maintain.