Utilitarianism can be described as a theory of ethics because it tells good or bad and also right or wrong. But some of the key concepts of utilitarianism talk about the conduct of public life. This makes the theory political. Utilitarianism key idea is an action is morally right or wrong depending on their positive or negative effects. The only effects important actions are positive and negative
In judging someone whether good or bad is by knowing that person’s impacts or contributions to the whole society his situated in. in short, moral evaluation in terms of virtues and vices. It is his approach that sets apart from egoism that is picked up by Hume and Hutcheson. Francis Hutcheson would adopt Shaftesbury’s moral sense approach and he also gave importance to moral evaluation in actions. In judging actions, the number of persons that the action brought out happiness is of importance.
It can be discussed to which extent GE Healthcare has an ethical responsibility in the way their equipment is used. Utilitarianism is an ethical theory can be briefly explained as the outcome of an action that brings the most benefit is the right action. In other words it is an ethical theory which puts high emphasis on the consequence of an action, to judge whether something is
Introduction All nurses are responsible for maintaining and enhancing the reputation of the profession. Nurses should act at all times in accordance with ethical healthcare practices, actively promote nursing ethics, and foster public trust and confidence in the nursing profession (SNB, 1999). What is ethics? Ethics is the study of what should be done (Kerridge, Lowe and McPhee, 2005), the principles of conduct governing an individual or a group. Ethical decision making in a health care system is undertaken to enable health professionals to increase their awareness of ethical issues involved in their practice and to guide them in arriving at sound, justifiable decisions (Amado, 2004).
Grounded in caring and a commitment to do good, professional responsibilities are reflected in societal expectations (Humphries, & Woods, 2014). Suitably, ethical nursing practice is dominant in Nursing Council of New Zealand (2012 a) competencies and is evident across all four domains. Even so, complex clinical situations that are ethically incongruent or ambiguous in nature, challenge a nurses ' professional judgement. This essay intends to examine an ethical decision-making process throughout a clinical scenario. A four-box methodology will be employed to examine the ethics of the situation and provide guidance in reaching appropriate decisions.
The nurse applies this duty by recognizing the good done by others and paying respect for these who have helped them. 4.3 Applications of the Concept to the Current Job In the application of ethical theories to my current job, when using the framework to make ethical judgments about specific cases, it will be useful to follow the process below: - Recognizing an ethical issues: one of the most important things to do at the beginning of ethical deliberation is to locate, to the extent possible, the specifically ethical aspect of the issue at hand. Sometimes what appears to be an ethical dispute is really a dispute about facts or concepts. - Consider the parties involved: Another important aspect to reflect upon are the various individuals and groups who may be affected by my decision. I should consider who might be harmed or who might benefit.
Ross: categorised duties into prima facie duties and actual duties. Prima facie duties are those unconditional and binding obligations that appear as real duty while actual duty is a moral obligation that is real and binding. Other duties that Ross advocated are fidelity, justice, gratitude and beneficence. Virtues Theory This theory mitigates the limitations of both the teleological and deontological theories that focus on the consequences of an action and the rights of people respectively. Virtues theory emphasizes on character that determines the behaviour of a person.
Utilitarianism is a doctrine that an action is right if it promotes happiness. Like consequentialist, Utilitarian’s judge the morality of an action based on its consequences. The action that produces the best consequences is the right action. The difference between consequentialism and utilitarianism is that utilitarian’s focus on engaging in acts that produce the best consequences for the greatest number of people. This theory was developed by Jeremy Bentham and subsequently John Stuart mill.
Ethics seek the best way of taking care of the patients as well as the best nursing function. Nurses are responsible for their clinical function, and their main responsibility is to take care of the clients and patients who deserve appropriate and safe care. They act based on the values they have selected these values form a framework to evaluate their activities influencing their goals, strategies, and function. These values can also be counted a resource for nurse’s conduct towards clinical ethical competency and their confrontation with contemporary ethical concerns. Values conduct human life priorities and form the world we live in.
Informed consent decision should uphold the principles of maximizing benefits and minimizing possible harm to the participants/patients by boosting the ethics of beneficence and nonmaleficence. Doctors need to tell patients the benefits and risks of procedures. The authors express that clinical and research roles in patient care are inseparable (Judkins-Cohn, Kielwasser-Withrow, Owen, & Ward, 2014). The nursing process is evidenced based and governed by the American Nurses Association code of ethics that include advocacy, compassion, respect for dignity/beliefs, protection of health, safety, and patient