By leaving the acid and olefin in contact with no isobutane, polymerization occurred which increased acid consumption. After the shutdown, processing off-spec material also contributed to an increased acid consumption (see Figure 2, pg.4). Because of long residence times between the contactors and settlers, it will take time for the acid consumption to reduce to pre-shutdown levels. Acid spend strength has been higher than required for this period (see Figure 4, pg.5). Process Support recommends lowering the amount of fresh acid consumed to get closer to the spend target.
The purpose of this lab is to observe the reaction between hydrochloric acid and magnesium metal. When the substances are reacted over water, the products produced are a salt in aqueous solution and a gas. While the salt remains in the water as part of a solution, the gas produced will float to the top. Though water vapor pressure will affect the pressure of the gas in the eudiometer, it is possible to apply Dalton’s law of partial pursues to find the dry pressure of the gas. When the dry pressure is determined, the volume of the gas at STP can then be determined and what the experimental volume of one mole of the gas would be at STP.
Title: How Ph Levels Affected the Fermentation of Beer Hypothesis: The beer will be left with more sugar deposit as the Ph levels increase because alpha/beta -amylase will no longer function. Predictions: Alcohol Percentage Analysis for the Control and the Experimental During this experiment, the pH level was increased, therefore Alpha-Amylase was favored. Due to the nature of Alpha-Amylase cutting randomly through a large carbohydrate molecule, it leaves bigger sugars in the flask, which cannot be digested by yeast. Due to this, less reactions should occur in the experimental, therefore leading to a lower percentage of alcohol production, compared to the control. There should be a higher alcohol percentage in the control than that of
2-bromobutane would have been expected to react next, due to bromine being a better leaving group than chlorine, then 2-chlorobutane. Tert-butyl-chloride would be expected to never react in a SN2 reaction, as it is so unreactive under these conditions. For each of the molecules used in this experiment (except tert-butyl-chloride), the nucleophile, iodine, would attack the electrophilic carbon bonded to the leaving group, chloride or bromide. That leaving group would then take the
The error was how fast the person was spinning the water. It could have changed the temperature of the water easily, by how much calcium chloride was dissolved. Another error was how much calcium chloride was added, it told us to add one scoop, instead of a more accurate measurement, for example, one tablespoon. The scoop could have been not filled all the way, or filled too much. To improve this experiment, we could have had accurate measurements and spinning every 10 seconds.
The data was handled accurately, values clearly labeled and calculated in the correct procedure. The procedure of reacting magnesium with oxygen was most likely the source of error. It is possible that the magnesium strip had not completely reacted with oxygen yet when I took the crucible off the burner and dropped distilled water into it. To improve this experiment, there could be better Bunsen burners: for some students, the fire was not strong enough so the magnesium strip did not glow and react. Also, there could be description or a standard time of how much oxygen should react with magnesium so that the exact mass of magnesium oxide could be
Controlled: What I will control? How I will control it? Why do I need to control it? Amount of Hydrochloric Acid Every trial, measuring the same amount of hydrochloric acid into each cylinder This is an important variable to control, because if we pour less acid or more than needed, the final results will not be reliable, and the experiment would be
purified through preparative LC as described above and finally characterized as phloretin and phloridzin (Fig. 1). Compound 1 3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-1-(2,4,6-trihydroxyphenyl)propan-1-one or phlorizin was obtained as amorphous powder, mp 2620C. The UV/Visible spectrum of the compound showed λmax at 225 and 285 nm. ESI–MS m/z 297 [M+Na]+ in positive ion mode and 273 [M-H] in negative ion mode for molecular formula C15H14O5; 274.
The sixth hypothesis predicted that if a chunk of petroleum jelly was added to algae, the algae would grow slower than the positive control. This hypothesis was proven to be incorrect, as there seemed to be the most algae in the petroleum jelly container. Because the petroleum jelly simulated plastics, and plastics are generally understood to have a detrimental effect on nature, this result was unexpected. This was demonstrated by the ratings: at the end of our experiment, petroleum jelly had a rating of 4, while positive control had a rating of
To find the number of moles of each reactant added, volume in liters was multiplied by the molarity (concentration). 2. The second step is about finding the theoretical yield, which will help to determine the correct amount of Ca(OH)2 can be made in chemical reaction. However, before doing this, it’s necessary to find whether CaCl2 or NaOH is a limiting reagent. For each test, the limiting reagent is found by multiplying the number of moles of the reactant by 1 mole of Ca(OH)2 and dividing then by a number of moles of reactant from the reaction.
“... There is not enough Penicillium mold of the right kind to give us large quantities of penicillin” (“Penicillin”). Because of this, it took scientists a long time to get enough of the mold to conduct experimental trials and then an even more prolonged time to release to the public. The drug also does not remain in the blood stream for very long, meaning people would need more than one dose to cure them of an infection. This means that scientists had to produce a large quantity of the drug for it to be effective in a large, semi long-term setting.
After seeing this data the two most effective look chemical at resisting energy was CaCl2 and LiCl. So we looked at the price of both of this chemical CaCl2 cost 6.55$ per 500g and LiCl cost 32.75$ per 500g because CaCl2 was substantially cheaper we decide to chose it to use in own hand warmer. We calculated that it would take 22g of CaCl2 to create a 20oC increase in temperature of 100ml of water. Some sources of error in this lab, would be heat escape from not be able to replace the lid of the calorement went adding chemical into it, inaccuracies in the balance, and not waiting of the proper time to recode the
Purpose The purpose of this experiment was to evaluate the stoichiometric relationship between the testing agents and to identify the products formed. The relationship was found by completing three acid and base neutralization reactions using phosphoric acid, which is a triprotic acid, with different volumes of sodium hydroxide. Introduction Procedure Phosphoric acid solution with a volume of 1.00 mL and a molarity of 6.00 M was transferred into a 125-mL Erlenmeyer flask using a volumetric pipette. Sodium hydroxide solution with a volume of 6.00 mL and a molarity of 3.00 M was transferred into a 50 mL beaker using a volumetric pipette. While swirling the phosphoric acid solution in the Erlenmeyer flask, the sodium hydroxide solution was added to it a few drops at a time using a disposable plastic pipette.