It’s also difficult to diagnose and treat. This is due to the elderly already suffering from vascular disease, deteriorating health, varying sleep patterns, and sorrow. Depression stems from biological factors such as genetic factors, neurological disorders and vascular changes. In terms of the vascular changes, vascular lesions might critically affect the frontal and subcortical regions that can lead to a disruptive monoaminergic pathway involved in the diagnosis of depression. Cerebrovascular injury has recently been linked to late life depression.
In the second block, negative life events and the weakest link composite scores were entered. The second block was also significant F(2, 318)=11.66 (p<.01). The cumulative R2 for the second block 2 was .55. This means that 55% of the variance in depressive symptoms at time two is explained by depressive symptoms at time one, negative life events, and the weakest link. The third block tested for interaction effects between the weakest link and negative life events, which was not found to be significant.
It is not Depressing to Age Why do some people find it depressing to age? Aging is something people can find terrifying or, in some cases, depressing. Aging shouldn’t be something to be depressed about. It should be something that should be appreciated that some have the ability to age. Than have their life cut short in a moments notice.
Rao et. al. (2015) revealed that majority of the elderlies didn’t receive love, respect and affection from their family members, were highly dissatisfied with the behavior of their children and were considered as a burden by the family members. In addition, Chan et. al. (2015) found out that one of the significant risk factor for mortality among elderlies is loneliness. On the other hand, variances in the experience of loneliness and depression with diverse demographic characteristics was discussed by Sum et.
“A depressed man lives with his mind turned back in his past, where he discovers causes that might “explain” his suffering or signs of predestination for his endless failure”. This is how Giovan Battista Cassano, director of the department of psychiatry in the University of Pisa, in Italy, defines the “negative thinking” of depressed people, one of the cognitive symptoms that characterizes the disorder. Unipolar depression, also known as major depressive disorder, is the most commonly diagnosed form of depression, whose diagnosis requires at least five symptoms of depression that must last at least 2 weeks, one of which must be abnormal loss of interest in activities or depressed mood. The symptoms, that must be severe enough to interfere with
As Beck (1963,1969) as cited in Brice (2017) proposes Jo's negative beliefs (schemas) about herself come from her childhood, this is usually the result of a traumatic childhood experiences. In Beck's model there are three primary mechanisms responsible for reinforcing and maintaining depression. He concluded that there are 3 levels of negative thinking (Cognitive Triad) these are developed early on in life. Her set of beliefs and expectations, are what distort her normal information processing. These schemas affect how she interprets herself, her future and the world around her, leading to cognitive distortions and impairment in perceptions, memory and
According to MentalHealthKC about 58% of people aged 65 and older believe that it is normal for people to get depressed as they grow older. The question I want to ask is whether this is Mother Nature talking or if it is their need for acceptance and attention? Dr. Dunn (physician) introduced the term “wellness” in 1961. He described it as “a lifestyle approach for perusing physical and psychological well-being”. This term was expanded by Bill Hettler, co-founder and president of the board of directors of the National Wellness Institute.
Another aspect of Becks model is the “faulty thinking strategies”, or “errors in logic”. This is where a person with depression will often focus in on negative points of a situation, with lack of insight, wrong information, and sometimes overthink and jump to conclusions; this is called “arbitrary inference”. People with depression, in Becks’s opinion also have “magnification and minimization” characteristics, where people with depression will blow a situation out of proportion or visa versa when minimizing a situation they under emphasize frequent
Late Adulthood is the stage of the human life cycle where an individual nears the end of their life. The life expectancy in the United States has slowly increased over the years therefore allowed many to further analyze the physical, cognitive, and psychosocial development during late adulthood. The stage of late adulthood has been emphasized by ageism and the stereotypical "old" person but, will be further educated by the normative development of the life cycle of late adulthood. For the “old” experience dramatic changes in their development as they face loss, death, and illness.
In this article, we will see how depression is increasing alarmingly worldwide. According to figures released by the World Health Organization (WHO) for 2010: Globally, more than 350 million people of all ages suffer from depression, or about 5% of the world population. Even worse, Depression is the leading cause of disability worldwide, and is a major contributor to the global burden of disease.
Life crisis is a usual phenomenon in one’s life as individuals experience unavoidable and unexpected changes and challenges throughout one’s development. Daniel Levinson proposed that evolving physiological, psychological, and role-oriented life changes affect major life transitions Agronin (2014). Levinson et. al. (1978) stated that late adulthood is a time when “a man can no longer occupy the center stage of his world … a man receives less recognition and has less authority and power. His generation is no longer the dominant one” (as cited in Agronin, 2014). He added that the late adulthood stage is a traumatic one because of the crises being experienced by individuals such as death of love ones, less recognition and authority and illness
1.6 Psychological Theories of Depression According to Dr. Aaron Beck, negative thoughts, generated by dysfunctional beliefs are typically the primary cause of depressive symptoms. A direct relationship occurs between the amount and severity of someone's negative thoughts and the severity of their depressive symptoms. In other words, the more negative thoughts you experience, the more depressed you will become. (Beck ,1967).
In a study conducted by Franak et.al (2015), it was found out that one third of the elderly had a low self-esteem. In relation, Wagner et. al. (2015) revealed that self-esteem declines in very old age and close to death which is associated with health-related constraints and disabilities, lower control beliefs and higher loneliness. This can be supported by the study of Molavi et.al. (2015) who explored the general health related predictors of self esteem and revealed significant relationship between the three predictor variables (somatic signs, anxiety or insomnia and depression) and self esteem which emphasized the role of physical and mental aspects of health on elderlies’ self-esteem.