Thyroid disorders are abnormal functions of the thyroid gland. Hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism are types of thyroid disorders, affecting women older than 60 years more than men with a rate of 24%.1 People who suffer from thyroid disorders experience many symptoms such as a high blood pressure, development of a goiter, and muscle aches. Undiagnosed thyroid disorders people who unknowingly have one of thyroid disorders are approximately 43%, which indicates a high number of people who may experience severe symptoms.2 So, early diagnosis of thyroid dysfunctions can help a doctor to treat these disorders in early stages by using an appropriate medication. Diagnosing thyroid disorders is a process that incorporates many factors including clinical
Hypothyroidism is one of the most common endocrine disorders and frequently encountered by family nurse practitioners. Hypothyroidism is defined as failure of the thyroid gland to produce sufficient thyroid hormone to meet the metabolic demands of the body (Al‐jaghbeer, 2012). Untreated hypothyroidism can contribute to hypertension, dyslipidemia, infertility, cognitive impairment, and neuromuscular dysfunction (Gaitonde, 2012). Data derived from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey suggests that about one in 300 persons in the United States have hypothyroidism. The prevalence increases with age, and is higher in females than in males.
It is a genetic disorder that is inherited from both parents who are carriers of the disease. It is characterized by anaemia with small and pale red blood cells (hypochromic microcytic anaemia) due to reduced production of one or more globin chains in the red blood cells. The consequences are ruptured of red blood cells in the spleen (Fucharoen, 1987; Weatherall, 1997). The clinical severity of thalassemia varies greatly depending on the number of genes affected (Cornelis, 2010). Approximately 7.0% of the world’s population is thalassaemia carrier and an estimated 300,000 babies are born each year with this disorder.
A few of moreover research need on postnatal depression for a Singaporean context. Research by Chen, Wang, Ch’ng, Mingoo, Lee, and Ong (2011) had proven the contrast throughout the races, there was a measurable considerably higher percentage of Singaporean Indian women who had scored above Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale of 13 than the different races. Therefore, a study on issues contributing postnatal depression on Singapore Indian women should be carried
The study found out that in every three adverse drug effects caused by medication errors, one of them occurs by a nurse medication administration. Additionally, In the US, annual estimated cost of drug caused morbidity and mortality is above $ 1.56 billion. Adverse drug effects caused by medication errors is rated to be between 3% and 28% of all the hospitalizations in the US. In another study done by Wakefield et.al investigating nurses perceptions on the causes of medication errors shows that error at administration was 56.4%, documentation error of 87.5% (the majority), technique error of 73,1% and time error of 53.6%. As it turns out, error in documentation is the most dominant found in the
Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy contribute to significant maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality in both developed and developing countries. Pre-eclampsia and eclampsia affects 5-10% of all the pregnancies and contributes to 10-15% of maternal deaths worldwide. Estimated case fatality rate due to eclampsia is 14 times higher in developing countries compared to developed countries 1,2. Preeclampsia is a multi-system disorder whose pathophysiology remains unclear. Preeclampsia is defined as a blood pressure of at least 140 mmHg systolic pressure and 90 mmHg diastolic pressure measured on two occasions 6 hours apart, accompanied by proteinuria of at least 300 mg per 24 hours, or at least 1+ on dipstick testing after 20 weeks3.
The American Cancer Society’s estimates in the United States for 2014 for bladder cancer are: • About 74,960 new cases of bladder cancer diagnosed about 56,390 in men and 18,300 in women. • About 15,580 deaths from bladder cancer about 11,170 in men and 4,410 in women, more than 500,000 people in the United States are bladder cancer survivors. Internationally, the incidence of bladder cancer varies about 10-fold (Figure 1). The disease is reported most often in Europe and North America and least often in several areas of Asia. North Africa (Egypt) is also a high-risk area.
Of these, 72% patients had duodenal perforation. 84% patients had a positive X-ray finding and 94% were positive on ultrasound examination (1). Hannan et al (2005) in their study of peptic perforation also reported highest incidence of 34% in the age group of 30-40 years. The mean age of the patients was 41 years (2). Duodenal perforation is a very common and fatal complication in patients of chronic peptic ulcer symptoms with inadequate or no medical treatment.
Because of this, findings regarding the relationship between PTSD and violence should be interpreted cautiously if they are based on analyses that do not take risk factors other than PTSD into account. For example, in one study of Veterans who served post-9/11, PTSD when examined on its own was associated with an increased risk of violence. However, when alcohol misuse was statistically controlled, PTSD was no longer associated with an
Methods: A 10-year retrospective study , between 2001, and 2010 was conducted at King Khalid University Hospital in Riyadh , Which included 392 pregnant women with sickle cell disease and 784 controls group . Results: The major complications in the pregnant group were anemia (86.2%); sickle cell crisis (64.8%); bacterial infection (8.8%); preterm delivery (15.3%). Conclusion: Pregnant Saudi women associated with sickle cell disease are at increased risk for complications . the need for exists of multidisciplinary approach to the management of complications in pregnancy is
Using the multivariate logistic regression synthesis, it is clear that demographic and social predictors are behind disparities in seeking the services across the vast nation. The CDC abortion surveillance reports that in 2013, a total of 664,435 legal practiced abortions were recorded from their 49 reporting centers. The rate for the same year was 12.5 per 1000 women with the ages 15-44 years while the abortion rate at 200:1000 live births. The black women are 3.75 times more likely to terminate their pregnancy than their white counterparts. About 90% of the abortions occur in the first trimester.
The psychological effects of Adderall are partially dependent on the individual user’s personality and their state of mind, typical side effects in therapeutic doses are alertness, apprehension, concentration, decreased sense of fatigue, and increased sociability (cite). In rare cases, heavy users have reportedly experienced amphetamine psychosis. Those who overdose are most likely to suffer from amphetamine psychosis, this condition is characterized by delusional thoughts, paranoia, and even hallucinations. Current statistics project that the number of people treated for amphetamine psychosis that never completely recover could be as much as 15 percent
A comparison of rates of diagnosis of diabetes mellitus by ethnicity and race disclosed that in 2010 the AAs diagnosed for diabetes were 13.2% of 29.1 million Americans (ADA, 2014). AA adults have the highest mortality rate from DM in individuals less than seventy years of age than other ethnic groups (Tancredi, et al., 2015). In 2010, diabetes mellitus has caused the deaths of 69,071 people in the United States with total percentage deaths of all males (48.2%) and females (51.4%). In 2013, their mortality rate accounted for 21.2 deaths per 100,000 populations (CDC, 2015). This alarming statistics have proven that AA adults at risk for T2DM are in a greater need for EB interventions that will be championed by the advanced practice nurses
Often dubbed, “hemophilia C,” a hereditary Factor XI deficiency that interferes with thrombin production and affects both sexes has an average occurrence rate of 1:100,000 and usually only affects those with serious injuries or surgeries (Pemberton 81). An acquired form of hemophilia (AH) also exists - the presence of autoantibodies (antibodies that target internal tissue) against FVIII occurs once per roughly every 1.5 million (Lebegue 312). Approximately 50% of cases are idiopathic, and the disease carries a mortality between 8-22% (Ibid.). It is treated using bypassing factors, which target the antibody or inhibitor, and long-term treatment with immunosuppressive steroids like prednisone and cyclophosphamide - treatments also more commonly used to treat rejection of FFP or recombinant clotting
In the United States it is estimated that there are approximately 24 million adults with COPD (Pietrangelo, 2015). COPD is one of the leading causes of hospital admissions and one in five COPD patients who are discharged from the hospital will be readmitted within 30 days. In the United States COPD is the third most common cause of death and in 2010 it cost the United States $49.9 billion (Pietrangelo,