An estimated 20 million Americans are suffering from a form of thyroid disease, and sixty percent of them have no idea about their condition. Hypothyroidism accounts for up to ninety percent of thyroid imbalances. How can such as large percentage of people have a disease they are unaware of? There are a number of signs and symptoms related to hypothyroidism or under-active thyroid that can be associated with other conditions.
B. Hashimoto’s disease is much more common in women than men. 1. Wilmar Wiersinga of the Department of Endocrinology & Metabolism, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, in The Netherlands states that “The incidence of autoimmune hypothyroidism is about 350 cases/100,000/year for women and 60 cases/100,000/year for men in iodine-sufficient regions and 44 (females) and 12 (males) per 100,000 per year in iodine-deficient areas.” 2. Although the disease often occurs in adolescent or young women, it more commonly appears between 30 and 50 years of age.
The median age was 50 years (range: 18–89years). All had pathological confirmation of the diagnosis. The male to female ratio was 1:1.2. Nonfunctional pituitary adenomas represented 60% (109/183) of the tumors. Median follow-up was 36 months (range: 1week - 78 months).
Myxedema is the severest form of hypothyroidism and at this stage there is a swelling and thickening of the skin and if left untreated myxedema can lead to coma and death…this is because the thyroid gland doesn’t produce enough of the much needed thyroid harmones that the body needs to function
Graves' disease only affects about 2-3% of the population (“About Graves’ Disease”). It's a very rare disease that is not taken as seriously as it should be by people. Graves' disease is an autoimmune thyroid disease. This disorder results in the overproduction of the thyroid hormone which is called hyperthyroidism. Graves' disease is an uncommon disease, but is usually found throughout women under the age of 40.
An unbalance in these hormones would cause changes in the function and structure of the gland. In the setting where there isn’t a sufficient amount of Thyroxin synthesized by the gland, there is an increase in TSH production. Over production of TSH causes hyperplasia of the gland just to match normal thyroid levels. This would then cause a goiter to form. When the goiter is grown significantly, pressure is put on the esophagus and trachea, causing respiratory
As discussed with Overtraining Syndrome and Adrenal Insufficiency, hormone levels are varying in an abnormal fashion with respect to the adrenal glands. The hypersecretions hyposecretions of adrenal gland hormones, receptor modulation of their respective target cells, and desensitization of corresponding target cell receptors produce a vast array of ill effects on many other parts of the body. For instance, in the early stages of Overtraining Syndrome, hypersecretion of cortisol is observed. Hypersecretion of cortisol, or hypercortisolism, also causes insulin resistance as cortisol is an antagonist to insulin. This can lead to the development of Type II Diabetes Mellitus and obesity.
Some types of depression run in the families, suggesting that a biological vulnerability can be inherited. This had seen to be the case with bipolar disorder. Studies of families in which members of each generation develops the bipolar disorder found that those with the illness have different genetic makeup than those who do not get ill. In some families, major depression also seems to occure generation after the generation. People who have low self-esteem, who consistency view themselves and the world pessimism or who are readily overwhelmed by the stress, are to have the depression.
Acknowledgements: I would to express my grateful thanks to my academic supervisors: Dr Jane Ryan from Cardiff and Mrs Zakiya AL Mamari for OSNI for their guidance, encouragement and direction to accomplish my projects. I would also thanks to the technicians of the library for helping me of choosing appropriate books for my projects. Additionally, special thanks of the diabetic staff nurses from the Boucher Poly Clinic and Diabetic and Endocrine Center for providing me with information during my searching for statistics. Secondly, special thanks for family: my mother, father, brothers and sisters for supporting me to continue my study in Cardiff University.
For example, a lump of fat on the back of the neck and weight gain in face and neck, but thin arms and legs are the two major characteristics of ACTH tumor. Last but not the least, the TSH tumor, which is thyroid-stimulating hormone tumor will cause weight loss, irregular heartbeat, and shakiness. In contrast, the non functional pituitary tumor has no real symptoms during initial stage, but it will cause symptoms by pressing the surrounding structures while the tumor is growing
These certainly include the role of genetic predisposition to depression. Nonetheless, as will be discussed, genetic vulnerability is only one of many triggers that may contribute to the expression of MD rather than being the only cause behind this mental health issue. Numerous factors play a role as either protective or risk factors thus impacting whether this genetic predisposition is then expressed. Yet, note that for episodes of MD, reasons do not act as causes. This means that understanding the disorder does not equal explanation to its causes but instead may help to draw a complete image of its symptoms (REF 3).
As a result of these high concordance rates they suggest that depression is more likely to occur in family members than the general population, in addition the higher concordance rate of depression for monozygotic twins compared to dizygotic twins suggests a genetic basis for depression (McGuffin et al, 1991). Sullivan, Neale and Kendler (2000) found substantial support for the role of genetics, however they also suggest environmental factors also facilitate the development of depression. In fact they suggest due to the complexity of depression it is the interplay of genetics and the environment which causes the development of
The other school of thought is that an event triggers a specific symptom of depression, and then the symptom activates more symptoms of depression. Fried wanted to know which of these two ideas better matched bereavement and the symptoms of depression. Testing: Fried and his colleagues analyzed these ideas by using data from the Changing Lives