INTRODUCTION Graves’ disease is an autoimmune disorder affecting the thyroid gland. It is the most common cause of hyperthyroidism. Thyroid’s secretion of thyroid hormones [Triiodothyronine(T3) and Thyroxine(T4)] is regulated by thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), which is released by the pituitary gland. These hormones regulate the body’s metabolic rate, heart function, brain development, bone maintenance and etc. In Graves’ disease, the immune system creates autoantibodies that mimic the function of TSH and stimulate production of more thyroid hormones.
Pathophysiology ANAT1066 Case study assessment Case study (b) INTRODUCTION Base on the clinical and laboratory data provided, the patient is suffering from Graves’ disease, a cause of hyperthyroidism which is a type of thyrotoxicosis. Clinical manifestation of Graves’ disease (GD) includes diffuse thyroid enlargement, palpitation and hyperthyroidism (Fukishima et al 2009). Other symptoms are ophthalmophathy which result in exopthalmos (bulging of the eye), and dermopathy (oedema) (mencori et al 2014). Hyperthyroidism has some symptoms such as heat intolerance, sweating and weight loss (mencori et al 2014). Tachycardia (a faster than normal heart rate at rest) and bruit (indicate hyper dynamic circulation) are among
Two point five percent of the US is vegan, which is a total of 7.5 million individuals. People do not realize the amount of individuals that are vegan due to the low percentage that is vegan. Since the general public forgets about them, they usually have a difficult time because the number of vegans is scarce thus causing limited vegan options. Either people do not understand Veganism or they do not want to. The effects of Veganism are the physical and mental changes on the body, the struggles that vegans face, and the effects on the environment.
The team involved for care of Graves disease may include Toms general practitioner, endocrinologist, a dietician, and a psychologist. A general practitioner will be able to advise Tom on specialists he is able to visit and book in with, and also assist Tom with potentially getting his thyroid removed or provide radioactive iodine to destroy all or a small part of the thyroid to get temporary (or permanent) relief from his signs and symptoms he is experiencing. A dietician is able to create a well balanced meal plan that ensures Tom is getting adequate nutrients is being ingested in order to prevent further weight loss, muscle deterioration and anaemia. A psychiatrist may be able to assist Tom with stress and give suitable coping mechanisms in order for Tom to be able to live a comfortable life with a healthy mental state of mind. Another contributing factor is treatment of hyperthyroidism.
The case was suffering from other disease such as : Thyroid disease ,and nervous system disease. After gathering the useful information about the case it showed that the family members was not suffering from any disease. Because of the thyroid disease it let the case obese for years and it lead him to have diabetes . The second case was suffering from a stork in 4 times and in the 3rd time diabetes was discovered. Medication is taking by pills .
Ideally, people would want to control these factors in hope of preventing attacks or strokes which could eventually lead to death. Some of the reasons one may suffer from a heart disease is because they have high blood pressure or hypertension, has family members who have heart problems, smokes, or does not exercise and is therefore overweight (“Heart disease”). Heart diseases can also mainly affect elderly people (“Heart Disease”), but this does not mean younger people can not develop a heart disease as well. The problems and outcomes that come with cardiovascular disease are heart attacks, strokes, Angina, Atherosclerosis, and Arteriosclerosis (“Heart Disease”). If a doctor suspects that a patient has a heart disease, the doctor can run tests such as a Carotid artery scan, Echocardiogram, Catheterization, and other tests to make sure if the patient is not a potential victim (“Heart disease”).
Unfortunately, some the most commonly occurring disorders, such as heart disease, high blood pressure, Alzheimer 's disease, arthritis, and diabetes, are caused by the combined effects of variations in many genes. Multigene or multifactorial diseases such as these would be especially hard to treat efficiently using gene