Case Study 1 – The Endocrine System Christina D’Amico University of Saint Joseph Abstract A fifteen-year-old boy with many hormonal abnormalities starting at the age of eleven suffered from joint pain and swelling along with poor bone growth and development. He broke his left hip and had low levels of testosterone and high levels of growth hormone resulting in gigantism and later acromegaly. He had a pituitary tumor removed, an operation on his knee and metal pins placed in his hips. And his jaw was split into fine pieces in order to be expanded because of the acromegaly. Doctors Notes • Swelling of right knee. • Ulcerated sores on lower left leg. • Abnormal hormone levels. • Broken left …show more content…
Should Dr. Kidd tell Eric that he is probably sterile? Why would he be sterile? I do believe Dr. Kidd should tell Eric that there is a possibility he may be sterile. Because he is his patient he has the right to know any possible side affects from his previous irregular hormone secretion. Eric has a possibility of being sterile because of the hyposecretion of T4 and T3, which can cause sterility (Marieb & Hoehn, 2013, p.607). Eric might also be sterile because of his low testosterone levels. This causes semen volume to decrease, and it can impair erection and ejaculation, leading to sterility (Marieb & Hoehn, 2013, p.1034). 2. Is there anything that they could try to do to stimulate spermatogenesis? Why is the absence of facial hair important? One thing the doctors could do to try and stimulate spermatogenesis is to give Eric follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH). The LH will promote testosterone production while the FSH will stimulate sperm production (Marieb & Hoehn, 2013, p.603). The absence of facial hair is important in Eric’s situation to make sure that his body in not producing excess amounts of these hormones. This could cause dysplasia of the anterior pituitary leading to the growth of a tumor (Greco, 2013, Lecture). Because he is not growing facial hair the doctors know that he is not at risk for producing too much hormone and developing a …show more content…
Why are his kidneys so active at night? Eric’s constant urination throughout the night led the doctor to discover that he had diabetes insipidus. This frequent urination throughout the night indicates that he is unable to maintain water balance i.e. an insufficient amount of antidiuretic hormone is present (Marieb & Hoehn, 2013, p.602). 2. Eric’s unpredictable shock responses could be due to his low levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). Low levels of this hormone can cause him to act abnormally to stressors. The low levels of ACTH are due to the prevention of corticotrophin releasing hormone (CRH) from rising levels of cortisol that are being secreted into the blood (Marieb & Hoehn, 2013, p.614). 3. If the pituitary is so important, and if Eric is not getting replacements of hormones the pituitary makes (except for ADH), why isn’t he dead? Eric is not dead because although binding of a hormone to a receptor is important it is also dependent on the number of receptors available for the hormone to bind to on the target cell. If there are still messages being received by the target cell than the hormones are still able to bind to a receptor (Marieb & Hoehn, 2013,
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CASE: John Smith is an 11 year old Asian boy with PMHx of hypothyroidism x 2 years, on levothyroxine 25 mcg daily presented with painful progressively enlarging goiter that started 2 months ago. The pain is described as constant shooting and radiating to the neck, rated 6/10, nothing made it better, moving his neck made it worse. Pt states that the pain is mostly localized to the right, and it is associated with compressive symptoms like difficulty breathing and swallowing, but no change in voice. The swelling was painful and progressive and at the time of examination was 2 × 2 cm on the right side of the neck and was moving with deglutition. She had no other complaints and her family history was noncontributory.
After a few years, there was a tumor in her pituitary region. The tumor was secreting excessive amounts of growth hormone, casing symptoms to appear. She had enlarged hands and feet, coarsened, enlarged facial features, coarse, oily, thickened skin, and
The posterior lobe is then responsible for storing the hormones made by the neurons of the hypothalamus. The hypothalamo-hypophyseal portal system is the specific way the hypothalamus communicates with the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland. This portal system consists of blood vessels that carry hormones of the hypothalamus to the anterior lobe. The anterior lobe then responds by making its own hormones. The anterior lobe hormones can go and control other glands.
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Why are his kidneys so active at night? Note: diabetes insipidus is not diabetes mellitus, so the answer is not high blood sugar levels or an insulin deficiency. Diabetes merely means high urine production. Look for a specific hormonal problem involving the pituitary. What hormone would Dr. Lee have prescribed?
He doesn’t have an extensive case of this disorder but he does take medication to treat it. I prescribed him dexamethasone when he was first diagnosed with this disorder fifteen years ago. Dexamethasone is a corticosteroid, which is usually produced by the adrenal glands but not in Elliot’s case. If steroids like dexamethasone are used frequently and for a long duration, this could be a cause to Cushing’s disease. This steroid could also compensate for low cortisol levels caused by the diabetes.
Because of to much cortisol it could cause some hallmark signs: like hypertension, obesity, weakness of muscles, a tendency to develop bruises. Some typical characteristics are: rapid deposit of fat; this rapid deposit of fat can be found between the shoulders it is called “buffalo hump”. There are also changes of a rounded
According to the cases from Linkou Chang Gung Memorial Hospital in Taiwan, the results show some common functional pituitary tumors are prolactinomas, growth hormone tumors, ACTH tumors, and TSH tumors. Prolactinomas are the most common adenomas among these functional pituitary tumors, and hyperprolactin is one of the most obvious symptoms of prolactinomas. Prolactinoma will cause women to produce milk even they do not give birth to a child, menstrual cycle changed or even stopped, inability to get pregnant, and stimulate the breast develop in men, etc. The second most common functional pituitary tumors are the growth hormone tumors, and this will cause gigantism or acromegaly due to the excess of the growth hormone produced by the tumor. ACTH is stands for Adrenocorticotropic Hormone, and for ACTH tumor, the symptoms are basically the change on appearance.
The writers of the game also do not include any psychological disorders in his patient file in-game to hint at a specific problem. Another problem in diagnosing Eddie is that one could argue that he suffers from several different disorders. He could reasonable also have a form of PTSD or schizophrenia based on some of his other traits. He shows symptoms of many disorders so the writers could have written him to follow one disorder more
Molecular genetics have shown nearly all to be monoclonal, suggesting that an intrinsic pituitary defect is likely to be responsible for pituitary tumorigenesis. Occasionally, prolactinoma may be part of a multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome (MEN-1), but this occurs too infrequently to justify MEN-1 screening in every patient with a prolactinoma. • GH- and PRL-secreting adenomas (or mammosomatotroph adenomas) Mixed growth hormone (GH)- and PRL-secreting tumors are well recognized and give rise to acromegaly in association with hyperprolactinemia.
The definition of transgender is: denoting or relating to a person whose sense of personal identity and gender does not correspond with their birth sex. According to Atanda, everyone has a gender identity and can recognize whether they are male or female. Transgender people feel like they don 't fit their physical appearances when most people feel that their gender and anatomy matches. There are a couple reasons why people may become transgender. Most of the time, kids are born with a brain that is more alike to their opposite sex.
Because hormones and genetic factors can cause gynecomastia, the plastic surgeon may need to refer a patient to an endocrinologist for either (1) blood and urine studies that would show elevated hormone levels or (2) genetic studies that would show the count and other details of the patient’s chromosomes. An abnormal testicular exam will prompt the surgeon to order an ultrasound of the testes. The surgeon may wish to obtain a mammogram to rule out a breast tumor, which, though unlikely, can occur in men especially with asymmetric breast