Crystalyn Poppert BIO202- Amy Bell September 1, 2015 Endocrine Written Assignment 1.) The different methods of intercellular signaling are gap junctions, local/paracrine hormones, and endocrine hormones. Gap junctions are direct connections that permit electrical and chemical signals to pass between cells. Tunnels that directly link cells. For example, the heart allows ions to flow directly from one heart cell to another. Local/paracrine hormones are short distance connections of hormone communication. It is one cell releasing chemicals to a nearby cell. Not a direct connection, unlike gap junctions. An example would be between a neuron (brain cell) and a muscle (receptor cell). The neuron would release chemicals to a nearby muscle that would …show more content…
The hypothalamus communicates to each lobe differently. The hypothalamo-hypophyseal tract system is the specific way the hypothalamus communicates with the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland. It is a nervous system connection with direct connecting neurons. The neurons are located in the hypothalamus and then axons extend down to the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland. The neurons produce hormones that slide down the axons and end up in the posterior lobe. The posterior lobe is then responsible for storing the hormones made by the neurons of the hypothalamus. The hypothalamo-hypophyseal portal system is the specific way the hypothalamus communicates with the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland. This portal system consists of blood vessels that carry hormones of the hypothalamus to the anterior lobe. The anterior lobe then responds by making its own hormones. The anterior lobe hormones can go and control other glands. The anterior lobe can either release or inhibit the pituitary …show more content…
Melatonin aids in sleep as well as ones biological clock. The thymus is located between the lungs behind the sternum and produces thymosin which help with immunity. The thyroid gland is located under the larynx in the neck and secretes calcitonin which is a hormone that decreases blood calcium levels which targets bones. The parathyroid gland is attached to the thyroid lobe (sits on the thyroid gland) and secretes PTH which is a hormone that does the opposite of calcitonin and increases blood calcium levels which target bone, kidneys, and the intestines. The adrenal glands are located on top of the kidney and consist of the adrenal cortex and the adrenal medulla. Each conducts a different function. The adrenal cortex is the outer portion of the adrenal gland and produces steroids such as aldosterone which reabsorbs sodium and releases potassium. The adrenal cortex is vital to sustain life. The adrenal medulla is the inner part of the adrenal gland and produces adrenaline hormones such as norepinephrine and epinephrine that are used in sudden stress
The secretion of cortisol is controlled by the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, which is a three inter-communicating regions of the body, the hypothalamus in the brain, the pituitary gland and the adrenal gland. When cortisol levels in the blood are reduced, a collection of cells in the hypothalamus release corticotrophin-releasing hormone, which causes the
Exercise 4, Activity 2: Plasma Glucose, Insulin, and Diabetes Mellitus By: Kelsey Clark Anatomy & Physiology II–CL7 Dr. Bruner February 20, 2018 INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVE: The endocrine system helps regulate homeostasis by producing and secreting hormones. When talking about Plasma Glucose, Insulin, and Diabetes Mellitus, the endocrine organ that is involved is the pancreas. The pancreas produces Glucagon and Insulin.
Cortisol is a steroid hormone, the main glucocorticoid hormone made in the cortex of adrenal glands. It is responsible for regulating the metabolism of proteins, fats, and carbohydrates. Cortisol is responsible for maintenance of homeostasis. Cortisol is a stress hormone that releases under severe stress.
The PTH helps control the calcium and phosphorus levels in the blood stream. So, without the secretions of the PTH, the human body will slowly start to shut down. Consequently, the parathyroid hormone is not ‘awake’ like the rest of the body is. Hypoparathyroidism can be triggered by “something that develops in childhood” or the adult life (Hypoparathyroidism). It can even be congenital, meaning, someone can be born with this disorder, or it can be inherited (Hypoparathyroidism).
NOTES Oxytocin is a hormone which is a nonapeptide hormone which is found in mammals. The hormone is produced in the hypothalamus which is a part of the brain. What the hormone does, is it transferred by the posterior pituitary gland into the bloodstream. Two of the most important actions in the human body are contractions in the uterus during lactation and childbirth.
The anterior pituitary is devoid of a nerve supply, but has a unique blood supply, a portal system. The hypothalamohypophyseal portal system begins in a series of capillaries in the median eminence of the hypothalamus sends blood via veins to the anterior lobe, where it ends in a series of capillaries. This portal system carries neurohormones from the hypothalamus to the anterior pituitary where they control the secretion of anterior lobe hormones. The anterior pituitary consists of five different endocrine cell types, identified by antibodies against pituitary hormones and capable of production and secretion of pituitary hormones: 1.
Estrogen is a hormone that is shown in the human body. It can be found in three forms: estradiol, estrone and estriol. Ovarian tissue, and follicles of the ovary synthesize high levels of estrogen. Estradiol is one of the most understood sex steroids. Estradiol is a weaker estrogen.
According to Martini, F., Tallitsch, R., Nath, J., (2018), the ANS functions outside of our conscious awareness and makes routine adjustments in our body’s systems (Martini, Tallitsch, & Nath, 2018, p. 450). The autonomic nervous system helps maintain the homeostasis of our bodies by regulating body temperature and coordinating cardiovascular, repertory, digestive, excretory, and reproductive functions. Efferent axons innervate the visceral organs and the efferent nerve fibers and ganglia of the ANS organize in two systems or divisions. The sympathetic division and the parasympathetic division. The sympathetic division is most active during times of stress, exertion, or emergency, also known as “flight or fight”.
The Pituitary Gland is a pea sized structure that is located very close to the hypothalamus. This particular gland is part of the endocrine system, and it produces critical hormones, which are substances that control different body functions. Research shows, that romantic love feelings begin in the lower brain, which is called the hypothalamus. When a person starts to realize that they have romantic feelings for another human being, a certain portion of the hypothalamus, passes a message through various chemicals, to the pituitary gland. After this is done, the pituitary releases a host of its own hormones that quickly spreads through the entire blood stream.
Pediatric Endocrine Imaging – Evaluation of the pituitary gland and a child with precocious puberty. Dr Priscilla Joshi Major Endocrine glands, which may need evaluation in children, are • Pituitary : hypophysis- hypothalamus axis • Thyroid • Parathyroid • Pancreas • Adrenals • Gonads- ovaries and testes This chapter would deal predominantly with imaging of the pituitary gland as well as evaluating a child with precocious puberty.