Bio202 Endocrine Research Paper

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Crystalyn Poppert BIO202- Amy Bell September 1, 2015 Endocrine Written Assignment 1.) The different methods of intercellular signaling are gap junctions, local/paracrine hormones, and endocrine hormones. Gap junctions are direct connections that permit electrical and chemical signals to pass between cells. Tunnels that directly link cells. For example, the heart allows ions to flow directly from one heart cell to another. Local/paracrine hormones are short distance connections of hormone communication. It is one cell releasing chemicals to a nearby cell. Not a direct connection, unlike gap junctions. An example would be between a neuron (brain cell) and a muscle (receptor cell). The neuron would release chemicals to a nearby muscle that would …show more content…

The hypothalamus communicates to each lobe differently. The hypothalamo-hypophyseal tract system is the specific way the hypothalamus communicates with the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland. It is a nervous system connection with direct connecting neurons. The neurons are located in the hypothalamus and then axons extend down to the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland. The neurons produce hormones that slide down the axons and end up in the posterior lobe. The posterior lobe is then responsible for storing the hormones made by the neurons of the hypothalamus. The hypothalamo-hypophyseal portal system is the specific way the hypothalamus communicates with the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland. This portal system consists of blood vessels that carry hormones of the hypothalamus to the anterior lobe. The anterior lobe then responds by making its own hormones. The anterior lobe hormones can go and control other glands. The anterior lobe can either release or inhibit the pituitary …show more content…

Melatonin aids in sleep as well as ones biological clock. The thymus is located between the lungs behind the sternum and produces thymosin which help with immunity. The thyroid gland is located under the larynx in the neck and secretes calcitonin which is a hormone that decreases blood calcium levels which targets bones. The parathyroid gland is attached to the thyroid lobe (sits on the thyroid gland) and secretes PTH which is a hormone that does the opposite of calcitonin and increases blood calcium levels which target bone, kidneys, and the intestines. The adrenal glands are located on top of the kidney and consist of the adrenal cortex and the adrenal medulla. Each conducts a different function. The adrenal cortex is the outer portion of the adrenal gland and produces steroids such as aldosterone which reabsorbs sodium and releases potassium. The adrenal cortex is vital to sustain life. The adrenal medulla is the inner part of the adrenal gland and produces adrenaline hormones such as norepinephrine and epinephrine that are used in sudden stress

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