Sickle cell anaemia is an inherited form of anaemia — a condition in which there aren't enough healthy red blood cells to carry adequate oxygen throughout your body (Mayo Clinic). This occurs due to wrong coding for the protein in haemoglobin which causes haemoglobin to not form properly. This anaemia is a recessive gene and when an individual is a carrier, it provides an advantage against malaria. Malaria is a life-threatening blood disease caused by a parasite called Plasmodium that is transmitted to humans by an infected Anopheles mosquito through biting. Malaria is a preventable and treatable disease (MNT).
Influenza as well as STDs were common, including Syphilis. According to Lia Ramsey in her article, Templateeliz, “Epidemic diseases became more common in the sixteenth century.” They included typhus, smallpox, diphtheria, and measles. There were epidemics of plague in children along with measles, smallpox, scarlet fever. Chicken pox, and diphtheria. No matter how common or widespread each type of disease was, each one affected a human life, and affected the population of Elizabethan
The Controversial Use of DDT in South Africa 1. Background information 1.1 What is malaria and how is it spread Malaria is a disease carried and spread by a female mosquito, Anopheles, and it is caused by a Plasmodium parasite, which is also carried by the Anopheles mosquito. These mosquitoes are mostly active and common between dusk and dawn. Once the mosquito bites a person, he/she becomes infected and the parasite travels through the bloodstream to get to the liver, where it attacks the red blood cells and it multiplies. At regular intervals of 48-72 hours, the parasite blasts in the red blood cells and new parasites are released.
There are many reasons for the contraction of Valley Fever such as major dust storms and changes in the environment. There are risk factors associated with Valley fever such as ethnicity, age, health status, and environment. It is more susceptible in individuals who are older in age, pregnant women, or individuals with weakened immune systems. “The risk of developing disseminated coccidioidomycosis is about 10-127 times greater in people of African-American and Filipino descent, due to a genetic component contributing to the development of the disseminated illness (Johnson, L. et al., 2014)”. Individuals who work in an outdoor environment where they are exposed to soil and dust has a higher risk of inhaling spores causing this fungal disease.
The Bubonic Plague once destroyed 60% of a population once. The Bubonic Plague, or Yertis Pestis bacterium, affects the Immune System, and causes lymph nodes to swell. The Immune System is responsible for the body’s immunity to pathogens. It causes much malfunction in the body, leading up to death if untreated. The Immune System, which the cell attacks, is responsible for warding off enemies from the body.
The aforementioned ring forms that are seen within red blood cells can vary significantly and can be easily misinterpreted as Plasmodium falciparum (i.e. a malaria parasite), although the absence of the hemozoin pigment should point to Babesia parasites. And indeed, there are cases described in the literature when the patient was erroneously diagnosed with malaria, which may result in misguided treatment and pose a serious risk to the
The more agonizing symptoms include kidney disease, blood disorders, and the malfunctioning of the nervous system due to the attacking of nerve cells and structures. Lupus can be caused by infections, genetics, or overexposure to UV light or chemical factors. The available treatments for lupus symptoms include topical creams for rashes that appear on the skin. There are also steroid shots that can be taken (however, there is a possibility of having physical side effects due to these) and antimalarial and immunosuppressive drugs can be taken to ease the other symptoms. Unfortunately, lupus is an aggressive, chronic disease that has no cure.
Ebola is one of many hot agents around the world, however it is the deadliest. Ebola outbreaks occur in primates, and are deadly. Ebola is a filoviridae that is extreme, and in most cases fatal, attacking primates, including humans (“Ebola” 1). Ebola has mutated, creating different strands that affects different primates in different ways. There's five different mutations of the Ebola virus: Ebola Zaire, Ebola Sudan, Taï Forest Ebola, Ebola Reston, and Bundibugyo Virus (“Ebola” 1).
The pneumonic plague is the second most commonly seen. It’s mortality rate varies from ninety to ninety five percent. Some of the symptoms that this plague includes were fever, cough, and blood-tinged sputum. As the disease got worse the sputum became free-flowing and bright red when it came out. The Black Death also includes the septicemic plague which is the least commonly seen throughout the village and has a mortality rate of almost a hundred percent.
These viruses "drift" genetically, which is why the flu vaccine has to be tweaked from time to time. Symptoms of H1N1 swine flu are like regular flu symptoms and include fever, cough, sore throat, runny nose, body aches, headache, chills, and fatigue. Many people with swine flu have had diarrhea and vomiting. Therefore, on social media people would typically discuss their condition describing these symptoms, for example “I m suffering from fever having body aches”, “I have been vomiting since last night”. These tweet example do not surely tell that it is a swine flu outbreak, but if large number of are talking about these symptoms and have some correlation with the swine flu is may be predicted as swine flow.