Restraint refers to any measure intended to limit the activity or control the behavior of an individual. This can be accomplished by both physical and chemical interventions. Mittens and positional supports such as nesting beds, rolls and swaddling are not considered restraints. The physician orders the type of restraint after all other protective strategies including medical immobilization devices and alternative interventions have been assessed and determined ineffective in preventing the infant from physically harming themselves. • Restraints will only be used after other methods of nursing intervention including soothing, comfort measures, and positional supports have been employed and proven ineffective.
• When coughing or sneezing, cover nose and mouth, and discard tissues promptly to appropriate containers and areas. Isolation techniques are used to prevent the spread of pathogens within hospitals and clinics of microorganisms among patients, healthcare workers, and visitors (Craig 112). Sonographers can be requested to perform bedside examinations upon patients or to care for patients that have impaired immunity (Craig 112). Effectiveness of isolation precautions has been questioned due to evidence of risk and the increase of them (Sprague). They must be prepared to carry out the following general isolation precautions: • Organize all necessary supplies before entering any patient/isolations areas before performing sonographic examinations.
Once prepared, the dye has enough concentration for two (2) separate patients. Be sure to advise the physician of extra dose available. ICG contains iodine. Take special notes if the patients declares an allergy and defer to the physician. ICG requires additional preparation and precautions: (1) mixing the dye and (2) if combination ICG/FA, two consents forms that patients must agree and sign.
Seek medical help immediately. Bring the remaining tablets with the container with you. • If you forget to take your dose, take the next dose when it is due and continue following your usual schedule. Avoid taking a double dose. Ask your doctor/pharmacist if you have other concerns.
In this case the concurrent review was chosen. As discussed previously in the assignment it was decided that drug kardex documentation would be audited. A drug kardex, also known as drug prescription or drug script is defined by the World Health Organisation (2002) as ‘’an instruction from the prescriber to the dispenser’’. In this instance the prescriber will be identified as any doctor in the hospital setting with prescriptive authority and the dispenser can be identified as any registered general nurse. For this Audit the author took the following steps in developing questions for the Audit tool as guided by The National Institute for Clinical Excellence
Importance of the Standard Precautions in Infection Prevention and Control in the Healthcare Setting: In a healthcare environment both patients, visitors and healthcare staff are at risk of getting any type of infection. ‘Standard precautions’ are clinically based work practices published by the center of disease control in 1996 and updated in 2007 that prevent the spread of infectious diseases in healthcare settings such as hospitals, nursing homes and any other health care setting. The precautions are based on the principle that all bodily fluids, excretions, secretions, non intact skin, blood and mucous membranes may contain infectious agents that are transmissible. At a minimum level, they are the basic level of infection control precautions to
Medical devices, appliances and articles used in surgery shall be sterilized. 2. Disposable medical devices and apparatus shall comply with the relevant state regulations and shall not be reused. 3. Oxygen humidification bottles, sputum suction bottles should be replaced daily cleaning and disinfection, ventilator pipeline cleaning and disinfection in accordance with the relevant provisions of the implementation.
Main side effects Respiratory depression, light headedness, sedation, dizziness, nausea and vomiting, constipation, abdominal pain. Patient education To take Morphine with meals to avoid abdominal cramps and nausea. To avoid driving and carry heavy machines. To take it before sleep. Nursing intervention Monitor vital sings especially respiratory rate and have the antidote (naloxone) on hand, maximize the therapeutic effects by assessing the pain before and after medication administration, minimize side effects by assist the patient while walking and keep side rails up, provide patient and family education about side effects and how to avoid and minimize
Pharmocovigilance Pharmocovigilance as define by the oxford dictionary is "the practice of monitoring the effects of medical drugs after they have been licensed for use especially in order to identify and evaluate previously unreported adverse reactions". In the EU all medicine is strictly analysed and tested for their quality , efficacy and safety before it is authorised for market. Even as these drugs are on the market they are continuously monitored to ensure any particulate which could affect the safety of the drug is identified and assessed and the necessary measures are taken .The Pharmocovigilance legislation was put into place to reduce the risks and increase the benefit of medicine and was "developed based on the observation that adverse drug reactions caused roughly 197,000 deaths in the EU". Since 1995 there have not been any major changes in the EU regulations of human medicine until the new Pharmocovigilance legislation came into effect during the month of July 2012. The aims of the Pharmocovigilance Legislation is to lessen the count of adverse drug reactions in the EU, through the following: • Compiling and maintain data on the safety of medicines • Analyzing data to identify the ADR's • Assessing the data to determine safety issues • Following effective regulatory action to deliver
Adverse event data received by the licence holder, normally a pharmaceutical company, has to have a prerequisite of tests sent to the local drug regulatory authority to market the medicine in most countries. The identification of hazards associated with pharmaceutical products and the minimizing of risk of any harm that may come to patients is a defining goal of pharmacovigilance.  The international society of Pharmacovigilance (ISoP), previously the European Society of Pharmacovigilance (ESoP), is an international non-profit scientific organisation, which aims to foster Pharmacovigilance both scientifically and educationally, and to enhance all aspects of the safe and proper use of medicines, in all countries.  Pharmacovigilance (PVG) is the on-going surveillance of product safety occurring throughout the product life cycle. It is the drug safety monitoring of pharmaceutical products and is practised in a highly regulated environment.