A therapist ONLY addressing an offender 's mental illness may be problematic because offenders have criminogenic needs that need to be treated in order to reduce criminal behavior. The Risk-Needs-Responsivity (RNR) model of corrections and rehabilitation was designed by Andrews, Honta, and Hoge in 1990. This model has demonstrated the strongest research-support on its ability to explain and treat criminal behavior. Andrews and Bonta have shown that in order to produce a successful rehabilitation program, the program must "respect the individual, have a psychological theory basis, and should work in junction with the enhancement of preventative services". This model reveals the importance of going beyond ONLY addressing an offender 's mental illness and providing treatment relevant to
It also provides an example of how attitudes towards community policing in these types of areas differs from disadvantaged social and economic areas, which may assist in understanding how to bridge the gap in community policing as a whole. McNeeley, S., & Grothoff, G. (2016). A multilevel examination of the relationship between racial tension and attitudes toward the police. American Journal of Criminal Justice, 41(3), 383-401. doi:10.1007/s12103-015-9318-2 This journal article examines whether a citizen’s individual perception of racial tension, or that of an entire community, leads to a negative attitude toward law enforcement (McNeeley & Grothoff, 2016). Telephone surveys were used in Seattle, Washington, in neighborhoods where there were large proportions of minority residents.
Describe the two important kinds of decisions that judges are required to make? If you were a defense attorney, how would you defend your responsibilities (of defending your client) to those who might ask? Sentencing of offenders is assessed differently using different ethical perspectives. Explain. Read exercise 7.4 (pg 109) and answer the posed question.
I believe that this will happen because people take drugs such as cocaine nowadays and create many deviant and violent acts. I believe that there are certain acts like the scarcity of necessities, drug abuse, environmental changes, big businesses taking over, and the looting of houses will be present in the future. Other deviant acts like killing people and dogs eating humans, are very unlikely to occur in the future. Prejudice and racism was also shown in the novel when in the middle of the novel we are introduced that Lauren is African American and that racism and prejudice was an issue in 2024 till 2026. Racism, prejudice, and everything that was discussed in the novel concern me after reading this novel.
This placed a strong reliance on psychological remedies for crime, including psychological analysis, diagnosis, and treatment of the root causes of criminal behavior similar to the treatment of a patient with a mental illness. In theory this would prevent recidivism because the true cause of the behavior would be resolved. The crime control period views crime as more of a rational choice and values punishment that is swift, certain, and severe in order to prevent/suppress criminality which threatens the functioning of a free society. This “us vs them” mentality supports greater prosecutorial power, increased usage of punitive processes like imprisonment/fines, and greater police power to deter
The purpose of the United States Sentencing Commission is to “establish sentencing policies and practices for the federal criminal justice system that will assure the ends of justice by promulgating detailed guidelines prescribing the appropriate sentences for offenders convicted of federal crimes.” (Mustard 289) When it comes to the sentencing process, data is collected about the individual’s offense and criminal records to determine the offense level and criminal history score. Once they find those two scores that then indicate a range of sentence lengths. With certain circumstances, the judge can depart from the guidelines and issue a sentence that either exceeds the maximum or falls short of the minimum required by the guidelines. Once the sentencing range is determined, courts must adhere to the following constraints: “In determination of the sentence to impose within the guideline range, or whether a departure from the guidelines is warranted, the court may consider, without
Domestic violence happens at home and is done by a relative onto the child. Violence, or aggressive behavior, can cause a psychological trauma and it could hinder the mentality of the child. From that, they could develop phobias. Phobia is a psychological fear of things. Having a phobia can obstruct a person’s way of
There are many other factors that are also considered, such as the current laws, the “degree of involvement in a crime, disparate law enforcement practices, sentencing and parole policies and practices, and biased decision making” (Mauer, 2011). Take for example the Anti-Drug Abuse Act of 1986. The purpose of this act was to ensure mandatory sentences for serious drug traffickers involved in the preparation, selling and packaging of crack cocaine. However, Congress’s haltingly decision to address this concern left the penalty structure completely skewed. Although there is a distinct physical difference between crack cocaine and powder cocaine, both share the same pharmacological roots.
In the United States, the police have the authority to use coercive force in several occasions, but only when citizens do not comply with the officer. In the states throughout the country, there have been incidents in which people believe that the police used unnecessary use of force on a victim. It has been argued that police have been taking advantage of their authority and power for no reason. In these cases there have been tragic incidents in which citizens either get killed or get beat up by police officers. Most of the time, these cases end up having riots by the community to make the court to convict the officer that killed an innocent victim.
Child sexual abuse includes a wide range of sexual behaviors that take place between a child and an older person. A Violator of this cruel act does not even think that to what extent it affect lives of million children and left a negative impression of society in a certain corner of their mind. Researchers examined that from every bunch of six boys and four girls one of each respective gender is sexually abused by an older person as evidenced by several cases. Where and when children are sexually abused? Children are often sexually assaulted in their houses or places which seem most familiar with them so they feel safe and comfortable there.