Nt1310 Unit 9 Study Guide

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1. Nucleus- present only in eukaryotic cells, this structure stores most of the genetic information of the cell. The nucleus directs the production of proteins through the synthesis of mRNA.
2. Nucleolus- the nucleolus synthesizes ribosomal RNA (rRNA). Afterwards, these are put together with the proteins produced in the cytoplasm to create ribosomal units.
3. Nuclear Envelope- the nuclear membrane is a double membrane structure that acts as a barrier separating the nucleus and the cytoplasm.
4. Mitochondria- termed as the “powerhouse of the cell,” the mitochondria is responsible for the production of ATP and cellular respiration. Energy is converted in this structure and used for the different activities that take place within the cell.
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Golgi Apparatus- The golgi apparatus modifies the products of the endoplasmic reticulum. It also creates some macromolecules like pectin and and other non-cellulose polysaccharides. The Golgi apparatus sorts the different materials into the transport vesicles with the help of molecular identification tags.
6. Lysosomes- Lysosomes are coined as the “suicide bag” of the cell. These structures are responsible for hydrolizing different macromolecules as well as intracellular digestion. The lysosome also recycles the cell’s organelles and some macromolecules which leads to the renewal of the cell. In a process called apopstosis, cells are destroyed.
7. Peroxisomes-Peroxisomes are responsible for the transfer of hydrogen coming from substrates to oxygen.
8. Bound Ribosomes- bound to some endoplasmic reticulum, these structures are responsible for the synthesis of proteins and polypeptides. The proteins that have been synthesized then become part of the membrane or exported out of the cell.
9. Free Ribosomes- these structures synthesize proteins that function within the cytosol. They also use the information found in the DNA for protein

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