Spinal disc herniation is a type of intervertebral disc protrusion, in which the intervertebral disc nucleus moves towards the anulus (the fibrous ring surrounding the disc) and slips out of its place, following which the nerve is subject to pressure. (Smeltzer et al., 2010). This condition is caused by sudden or gradual collapse of ligaments and supporting tissues around the intervertebral disc (Fatemi, 2011). Spinal disc herniation is among the most common degenerative disorders in vertebral column (Yang et al., 2015), which can eventually lead to lower back pain and radicular pain (Yang et al., 2015). In other words, the intervertebral disc herniation is currently the most frequent cause of lower back pain throughout the world (Saleem et
DOI: 08/29/2006. Patient is a 57-year-old male bookbinding operator/route salesman who sustained injury when he was startled by a cat while making a delivery and fell. Per OMNI, he was initially diagnosed with lumbar herniated disk. The patient is currently temporary totally disabled due to knee surgery in April 2013. Based on the progress report dated 03/21/16, the patient reports that his low back pain tweaked again, after making the bed.
DOI: 11/16/2015. Patient is a 57-year-old right hand dominant male mechanic who sustained injury while he was lifting a metal roller when he lost his balance and fell backwards. Per OMNI, he was initially diagnosed with head laceration which required 7 sutures and right shoulder full thickness supraspinatus tendon tear, confirmed by 12/29/15 MRI. MRI of the right shoulder obtained on 12/29/15 showed limited portions of the study due to motion artifact.
DOI: 8/15/2016. Patient is a 65-year-old male manager who sustained injury while he was lifting a tire that was lying flat on the ground when he slipped and felt a pull in his back. Per the procedure report dated 10/14/16, the patient had a lumbar trigger point injection. Based on the medical report dated 11/16/16, the patient complains of lower back pain which is sharp, dull and achy in nature. The lower back pain radiates to bilateral side, bilateral hips and bilateral legs.
DOI: 5/22/2000. Patient is a 52-year-old female stitcher operator who sustained injury while she was pushing load onto a stitcher when she strained her right shoulder, wrist elbow, and neck. She underwent exploration of cervical fusion at C5-T7 with anterior cervical discectomy with fusion at C3-C5 on 12/13/11 and implantation of new implantable pulse generator (IPG) and spinal cord stimulator unit on 09/17/14. Based on the latest medical report dated 01/29/16, the IW presents for follow up of neck and shoulder pain.
Also, anticonvulsants show an effect when combined with opioids and muscle relaxants are more effective with acute low back pain than chronic (Morlion, B., 2013). Managing low back pain is not confined to medications, there is also interventional techniques including epidural steroids injections and facet joint interventions. Facet joint intervention “ involves percutaneous placement of radiofrequency electrode on the lumbar medial branches to deliver an electric current to coagulate sensory nerves”. Furthermore, surgery can be an option as with spinal decompression, spinal fusion or disc arthroplasty (Morlion, B.,
One of the disorders associated with it is a cervical radicular syndrome. To treat such medical problems, the physicians are recommending and performing surgeries on patients is one of the main techniques used (Arts et al., 2010). However, surgery has some outcomes that could be serious and the physicians and patients should discuss all of them before a choice is made. Some of these outcomes include chances of a Neck Disability Index, pain in the neck as well as the arm, complications, costs after charges, perceived recovery, and anxiety. Some of the surgical techniques that could be used include anterior discectomy with interbody fusion, anterior discectomy with disc prosthesis and anterior discectomy only (Arts et al., 2010).
DOI: 7/28/2014. Patient is a 33-year old male laborer who sustained injury when his left wrist twisted and snapped while using a drill. Per OMNI, he was initially diagnosed with dislocation of the left wrist. He underwent a tendon graft reconstruction on 08/07/14 and hardware removal on 09/11/14.
A leading institution, such as the National Institutes for Health, would need to create a large-scale, multi-site, wide-ranging study that encompasses thousands of test subjects and use the most rigorous guidelines possible to ensure that the study is as methodologically sound as possible. The procedural rigor of the studies included in this paper appeared strong; however the sample sizes were not large enough (in most instances) to justify generalizing the findings to the general population. Word Count for Abstract: 244 words Keywords: spinal manipulation; chronic lower back pain; short term; therapy; functional outcomes; meta-analysis Ultramini Abstract: Due to the weakness of limited data available in the literature there was no definitive answer to the clinical relevance of spinal manipulation for improving chronic lower back pain. Notwithstanding its relative low cost and non-invasive nature, further research is still needed in order for spinal manipulation to have an evidence-based place in chronic lower back pain
Effects of McKenzie protocol on pregnancy related back pain INTRODUCTION Back pain is a major complaint encountered in clinical practice world-wide [1, 2] (Cypress, 1983; Asuzu, 1995). Back pain is not a diagnosis but it is a symptom that occurs in a wide variety of medical, musculoskeletal, and neurological conditions  (Roach et al., 1997). Back pain is identified as one of the major problems throughout the world with the highest prevalence among female individuals and those aged 40-80 years  (3). According to Mogren and Pohjanen,  back pain is one of the most common problems associated with pregnancy and this problem of BP is usually attributed to combination of mechanical, hormonal, circulatory, and psychosocial factors particularly
1. Introduction: Chronic nonspecific low back pain (CNSLBP) (i.e., low back pain of at least 12 weeks’ duration and without a specific cause)(1, 2) is one of the most common health conditions worldwide(3). Chronic low back pain (CLBP) is highly associated with disability (1), emotional changes (2), and work absenteeism (1). Given that chronic low back pain is very prevalent (4), the costs associated with this condition are very high (5).
1 INTRODUCTION Chronic low back pain is the pain in the lower back area for longer than 3 months created by injury, disease or stress. It may include the pain in bone, nerve and muscle. The quality of pain may be aching, burning, stabbing, or tingling, sharp or dull and well defined or vague (Akuthota, Baker, & Danisa, 2009). It is a most common problem all over the world and the age group 40 to 80 years (D. G. Hoy et al., 2012).
Low back pain is neither a disease nor a diagnostic entity of any sort. The term refers to pain of variable duration in an area of the anatomy afflicted so often that it is has become a paradigm of responses to external and internal stimuli (Ehrlich GE 2003). Research study on low back pain has shown that it is a common problem in general population. As seen in Western industrialized countries, back pain is one of the major health problems (R Ayiesah and D Ismail 2007).