What constitutes an intention to commit a criminal offence has been the focus of intense common law debate for more than three decades. Intention can be separated into two sub-sections: ‘direct intent’ and ‘oblique intent.’ The preponderance of murder cases deal with the concept of direct intent, and prove to be uncomplicated as the defendant embarks on a course of conduct to bring about a result which in fact occurs. When considering the concept of oblique intent, it is essential to look at the case of R v Woolin  1 WLR, alongside previous cases, to better understand how and why the appellate courts have developed the meaning of oblique intent. It is also important to note that in view of the uncertainty inherent in the judicial guidelines …show more content…
The initial case to examine is DPP v Smith, where the House of Lords held that an objective stance was applicable in establishing oblique intent if a person intended the natural and probable consequence of his actions. However, this legal position was overturned and reversed by the passing of the Criminal Justice Act 1967. Through statute, Parliament intended for s8 of the Criminal Justice Act 1967 to define the meaning of oblique intent, to include that a court or jury, when, ‘determining whether a person has committed an offence- (a) shall not be bound in law to infer that he intended or foresaw a result of his actions by reason only of its being a natural and probable consequence of those actions;’ but more essentially, ‘(b) shall decide whether he did intend or foresee that result by reference to all the evidence, drawing such inferences from the evidence as appear proper in the circumstances.’ The courts ruled that a subjective test be required when determining oblique intent, answering the first two questions given above, but giving rise to a series of consecutive issues regarding the penultimate question: how probable is it that the adverse effect will occur but more essentially, does it have to be virtually certain to occur or does it have to be mere …show more content…
In Hancock & Shankland, their Lordships stressed “that moral certainty or overwhelming probability was necessary in order to constitute intention.” Indeed, The Maloney direction was criticised as it did not provide any reference to probability. The lack of uniformity of the meaning of intention in the above cases was addressed in Nedrick by Lord Lane CJ when he provided what is considered to be a ‘model direction’ to the meaning of oblique
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On May 12, 2013 a Sydney man Mr Lazarus was accused of raping an 18 year old woman in an alley outside his father’s nightclub. This case caused discussion about NSW sexual consent laws. This case clearly highlights the effectiveness and some major flaws of the legal system. During the first jury trial in NSW District Court Mr Lazarus was convicted for rape without sexual consent and resulted in a maximum of five-year prison sentence. After serving in prison for 11 months the Court of Criminal Appeal conducted a second trial for the case which resulted in an acquittal as Judge Tupman claimed that Mr Lazarus truly did believe that Ms Mullins did consent which is a crucial element of the offence of sexual intersource without consent.
John Cade should be charged with voluntary manslaughter in the death of Robert Sheldon. Voluntary manslaughter is an intentional murder that is not premeditated and happens when the suspect is provoked. Evidence was presented that the suspect stabbed the victim deliberately. In Affidavit B, Ponyboy Curtis states, “He would kill the next person who jumped him.” This piece of evidence from the witness reveals that Mr. Cade stabbed Mr. Sheldon on purpose because he knew months ago that he would have to defend himself if something happened.
In order for an act to become a crime, there must be intent present at the time of the act being carried out. The intent here is showed by the fact that the would be defendant was in a heated argument, left the argument, and returned back to the scene of the argument with a deadly weapon determined to kill his coworkers. The amount of time that passed gave Swafford a chance to consider his actions and deem them irrational and dangerous. This guilty state of mind defines his motives, making him guilty in the eyes of the
Although the New England Indians felt that law and justice were, “a personal and clam mater and did not involve a third party of an impersonal public institution or ‘state’” (p. 67), the law of England defined murder as, “an offence against the state, not a private matter between two groups of people” (p. 70), thus the jurisdiction of the General Court was fair to the defendant’s case.
Not only was George not expecting Candy in joining the purchasing of the farm, but Gorge killing Lennie for what he had done to Curley 's wife was an outcome to never be intended. Overall both evidence constructs the idea that intentions do not predict outcomes because Romeo’s and George’s outcomes came no were near their expectations. Furthermore, Samone expressed an idea in which heated up a conversation on how
To measure if justice was achieved, the case must be reviewed with the three main characteristics of justice, Was it fair? Was it equal? Did both parties have equal access? with further analysis of the back story, charges and both parties cases considered with the characteristics of Justice an educated decision can be made whether the case R v Loveridge  NSWSC 1638, achieved Justice Kieran Loveridge was convicted by the courts for an unprovoked attack on 18- year old Thomas Kelly at Kings Cross and assaults on Rhyse Saliba, Aden Gazi, Marco Compagnoni and Matthew Serrao. Kieran Loveridge was also found as intoxicated through the process of the assaults although there is no legitimate proof on how much Kieran Loveridge consumed, but
As with any criminal case, there are always a number of issues pertaining the stages of the crime and also the media and the general public’s opinion of the case. Many of the issues and explicit actions of certain individuals that had happened during the Corryn Rayney case had affected the interpretation of the case in someway for both government workers and the general public. By analysing the issues of the case, it allows a much more detailed view on the case and how most of the issues are linked in one way or another. One of the issues regarding this case was where a police officer had been found attempting to pressure forensic pathologists to alter their case reports to align with their best interests.
Annotated Bibliography Draft Student name : Haider Zafaryab Student number: 2360526 Thesis Statement : Capital Punishment is a very controversial topic around the globe. I believe that it does more harm than good and breeds violence in society. Source 1: Radelet, M. L., & Akers, R. L. (1996).
The intent to commit the felony is considered enough to prove malice for the conviction of murder. If a perpetrator intends only to rob a victim, but the victim or bystander dies during the commission of the robbery, the perpetrator can be charged
The appellant had intercourse with the complainant. The issue raised in this case is did the complainant consent to the sexual intercourse. The appellant did not consider whether she consented and proceeded with it anyway. In the judgment of R v Tolmie , when Kirby P was defining inadvertent recklessness, he referred to the statements in DPP v Morgan and
He describes the objection as, “all men desire the apparent good, but have no control over the appearance, but the end appears to each man in a form answering to his character” (1114b). This view argues that all people pursue that which seems good, but some people cannot see the true good, which is out of their control. The immediate implication of this objection, if it is indeed true, suggests that “no one is responsible for his own evildoing” (1114b).
The meaning of intention have been highly debated and had went through transformation throughout the years. It was R v Moloney  AC 905 which introduced the Moloney Guidelines was the first case to introduce this subject, this case was followed by R v Hancock and Shankland  3 WLR 1014 then came along the case of R v Nedrick  1 WLR 1025 the final, clarified guidance comes from R v Woolin  1 A.C. 82 . DIRECT INTENT If a defendant commits an act with an aim in mind, and he succeeds in it, it can be said that he directly intended this consequence, and therefore, has direct intent. For an example, in the case of R v White  2 KB 124 , defendant put cyanide into his mother’s lemonade drink, but she died of heart failure before the poison could kill her.
Lord bridge stated that what emerged was that in addition to the existing rule of foreseeability, for duty of care to arise there should exist between whom the duty is owed and the party owing the duty proximity and the situation one in which the court considers just, fair and
Here a compensation tribunal was set up to compensate the families of victims who had died in the Stardust tragedy. The grieving father of one victim sought a review of a decision made by the tribunal to award the mother of a victim compensation and the father no compensation. The court refused to quash the decision of the tribunal and, strangely, agreed that there were circumstances which justified awarding of compensation to one parent and not the other. This decision was made by a court which was quite critical of the approach taken by Lord Diplock in GCHQ. Henchy J. said he would be ‘slow to test reasonableness by seeing if it accords with logic’ and would be ‘equally slow’ to accept the moral standard criteria believing it a vague and inconsistent principle to base reasonableness on.
The willingness of the victim to commit an offence upon him or her makes the offender legally stronger. The consent of the victims whom the law intended to protect encourages the offender. Victim solicitation even more than victim’s consent, confers on the act a kind of legitimacy