A translator may subject him-/herself either to the original text, with the norms it has realized, or to the norms active in the target culture, or in that section of it which would host the end product. Translation is a complicated task, during which the meaning of the source-language text should be conveyed to the target-language readers. In other words, translation can be defined as encoding the meaning and form in the target language by means of the decoded meaning and form of the source language. Different theorists state various definitions for translation. The concept of norms in translation theory was
Introduction According to Alexander Pope  "translation is the realizing of meanings and effects in one language that correspond in some way to the meanings and effects realized in another". The inherency perspective of translation discusses the reliability and equivalence between the target and the source language. Equivalence is a similarity in function or meaning between language choices, whether of grammatical pattern, lexis or cohesion, especially when applied to translated texts. The socio-cultural perspective looks to the translation as a cultural process in terms of domestication and foreignization. This essay will discuss the seven linguistic aspects that face the translator translating any text in other language.
Each literary work exists in relation to other works. Therefore, a translator may encounter problems with literary references, quotations or allusions. In cases where their source had not been ascribed, the translator must identify them, yet not by translating them but by quoting a translation from already established rendition. Gender constitutes another difficulty. In non-literary texts it fulfils a grammatical function, in literary texts it can become an item of a symbolic structure.
Considering Khayyam’s Rubaiyat and Fitzgerald’s translation in the realm of discourse studies and ideological concepts is included in the main aim of this research. Besides, by choosing the concept of “voice” which can be a more comprehensive term including all the previous concepts, the researcher has tried to find the more reliable answers for the research questions. “Voice” is one of the new themes in discourse studies and discourse analysis, especially critical discourse analysis. Finding the voice in a piece of poetry means finding the ideological and social-political tenets existed in the text. The reflected voice in a text goes under so many changes in the process of translation.
Later, based on the precious studies and findings, André Lefevere put forward the concepts of “translation as rewriting” and “rewriting as manipulation” in his book entitled Translation, Rewriting and The Manipulation of Literary Fame. He stresses that translation is a kind of rewriting, indicating all rewritings, whatever their intentions, reflect a certain ideology and poetics and manipulate literature to function in a given society in a given way. After we get familiar with the origin and development of Lefevere’s manipulation theory, this thesis tries to expound the notions of this
At first let’s start with discuss the meaning o translation, what is the meaning of it.. Translation means how to transport the idea of text, meaning of it which correspond in the same way and the same effects so can the readers or the audience understand it in clear way as the original one there is two key terms in the practice of translation: fidelity and equivalence. The translation target is how we can explore linguistics aspect of translation fidelity is the value of who we can discuss the translation to be clear to the reader. Equivalence is to discuss the language itself; it didn’t have a value judgment Both of them have complicated perception, there is no comparing word by word... we are comparing text especially if it pass through culture. We can’t add a part in the translated text
The former can be broken down into Descriptive Translation Studies and Translation Theory, which in turn are divided into Product, Process and Function oriented respectively (in: Baker 2005: 278). Focusing on the branch named Translation Theory, it is necessary to point out that this is a blanket term. This means that Translation Theory covers many definitions, methods and other translation related issues. As Newmark noted, Translation Theory states and clearly defines what are the most appropriate methods of translation of various texts belonging to different categories (Newmark 1991: 19). Newmark (1981:38) claims that “translation is a craft consisting in the attempt to replace a written message and/or statement in one language by the same message and/or statement in another language.
This process aims to provide at least some contextual description of the research, for the readers. Along with this, new guidelines posited by Levitt et. al. (2018) also encourages the exemplification of the analytic process. As a result of situational differences in every research, social and cultural contexts would vary.
2.2 Concepts There are some important concepts related to the study, they are translation, subtitling (audiovisual translation), humor, meaning, context of situation, and movie. The theories used in this study are based on what is stated by the experts in the field of verbal humor, ethnography or communication (S-P-E-A-K-I-N-G model) and subtitling strategies. 2.2.1 Translation According to Maurits D.S. Simatupang (2000: 2), translation is transferring the meaning existing in the SL to the TL, and makes it as natural as possible along with the rules of the TL. Hatim and Munday (2004: 3) define that translation has two senses.
Then, depending on the kind of text that translators are working with, they should use a different approach for the assessment of the translation. Reiss classifies texts according to their function and, depending on this, they can be categorized