Philip Manning 12504697 Q) Evaluate Peter Singer’s argument in ‘Famine, Affluence and Morality’. There can be no doubt that Peter Singer’s argument in ‘Famine, Affluence and Morality’ is unrealistic, unfair and not sustainable. Singer’s arguments are valid arguments but not sound. In order to get a clear and balanced view of my arguments which disprove the Singer article, it is first necessary to examine and lay out the main aspects of Singer’s argument in ‘Famine, Affluence and Morality’. My arguments against Singer’s claims shall then be detailed and examined in depth. Therefore, Section I of this essay shall outline and describe Singer’s arguments and conclusion, while Section II shall examine the objections and counter-claims to Singer’s …show more content…
However, Argument I of Singer’s essay is quite obviously correct and to argue otherwise would be foolhardy and morally cruel. Similarly, Argument III of Singer’s essay, that people in developed societies possess the resources and abilities to alleviate famine and suffering is equally hard to refute. Therefore, it is Argument II of Singer’s essay that I will examine in detail and then offer several objections that will repudiate the hypothesis of Singer’s essay, ‘Famine, Affluence, and …show more content…
There can be no doubt that people should be morally free to live their own lives and pursue and develop their own interests, to a certain degree at the very least. This necessitates then that a person is morally permitted to dedicate one’s time, energy, and money to activities that don’t directly have an impact on famine relief or similar worthy causes. For example, it could frequently happen and has happened whereby certain pursuits and recreations have beneficial and favourable outcomes and consequences that could not have been foreseen. My argument lies with the issue that if people are not free to follow their intellectual interests when it is not obvious what positive impact they might have, or whether they would have any positive repercussions at all, humanity in general could be worse off than we actually are. This is tied to Singer’s argument if people are obligated to do as much as they possibly can, to aid famine relief, they would have to give up many of their own special projects and interests in order to do so. (Singer, 1972, p. 235) This could end up with humanity missing out on revolutionary improvements in human knowledge and impede the betterment of civilisation. However, this does not imply that people are morally permitted not to contribute to famine relief, and does not imply that people are only obligated to
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By challenging common assumptions and being ethical he effectively claims that the solution to solving these global hunger problems is foreign assistance. Paarlberg shows Pathos, Ethos and Logos through the thought of unravelling worldwide starvation by being realistic of the view on pre-industrial food and farming. Pathos is clearly evident in Paarlberg’s article through the presentation of the food insecurity problem in Africa and Asia. He uses impassioned words as an attempt to reach out to his target audience on a more emotional level by agitating and drawing sympathy of whole food shoppers and policy makers. Paarlberg employs Pathos during the article when he says, “The majority of truly undernourished people -- 62 percent, according to the U.N. Food and Agriculture Organization -- live in either Africa or South Asia, and most are small farmers or rural landless laborers living in the countryside of Africa and South Asia” (page 611-12).
Farmer asserts that the people who died in Haiti without any form of effective therapy were exclusively “people who lived and died in poverty” (115). The author gives an example of Joseph who was an AIDS victim who narrates about his father’s attempt to get medication. The poor peasant sells all his belonging to pay the healer in a bid to save Joseph’s life (146). Paul Farmer seeks to enhance the living standards of the Haitian people with particular attention to making healthcare services available to the oppressed and vulnerable population of Haiti. He works in a diligent manner to fight for the needs of the poor people of Haiti by arguing against the huge gap between “this world” and the world of Haiti where there is an “accumulation of wealth in one part of the world and abject misery in another” (Kidder
Malthus’s work can be described as a rationalization of social inequality created through the Industrial Revolution and as a justification for nativism. The assumptions of growth of food supply and population from Malthus are used as the explanation for environmental degradation and poverty. His conclusions provide a tool to prevent social and
Don’t blame poverty on the poor – Analysis Our lives are, to some point, based on luck. You can be lucky to have successful parents with a lot of fortune or unlucky to be born in a poor neighborhood where you’re struggling with rob-bery and drive-by shooting. Eusebius McKaiser writes about the good and bad luck he has been dealing with through life, in the article “Don’t blame poverty on the poor” in the Mail&Guardian newspaper. A lot of people make the mistake to blame people for their own failures, and perhaps they could have done something differently, in order to be more suc-cessful. But they might not have had the same opportunities, as a wealthy upper-class man by virtue of genetics, neighborhood and the luck they have been given.
In this paper I will be arguing against Peter Singer’s views on poverty, which he expresses in his paper “The Singer Solution to World Poverty”. Singer argues that all people with wealth surplus to their essential needs are morally obligated to prevent the suffering of those in dire situations. I will argue that you can not hold people morally obligated to prevent the suffering of others, and that people can only be held morally obligated to prevent suffering that they themselves caused. To begin, we will look at Singers beliefs and arguments regarding poverty and the responsibility of people to help those in need. Singer’s first arguments revolves around a girl named Dora, who is a retired schoolteacher, who is barely making a living writing
Singer is no stranger to writing moral arguments, having written many different books and articles in the past on a wide range of ethical debates. “The Singer Solution to World Poverty,” originally printed in the New York Times in the fall of 1999 just before Singer began to work at Princeton University, is intended for the common man, a middle-class citizen who makes average wages and reads popular newspapers. As Singer is a professor of ethics, the article is structured around the
The poor are not responsible for hungry lives, without water and electricity. There are deep inequalities and fundamental deficiencies of social organization. The problem of hunger is not only a question of food production (the bigger, the better) but also of access to food and equity. There are no winners and losers. With these degrees of exclusion, we 're all losers.
Document 1 introduces Thomas Malthus, an economist who claims that the populations of Europe are growing at too quick of a rate to maintain. Malthus believes that regulating the populations of Europe will improve the livelihoods of citizens. Malthus explains, “poverty has little or no relation to forms of government, or the unequal division of property; and as the rich do not in reality possess the power of finding employment and maintenance for all the poor.” It makes sense that Malthus’ claim should go against the three other groups ideas of changing the government or the rights of the people because he is simply maintaining his belief that regulating population will improve livelihood. In Document 2, David Ricardo claims that, “wages should be left to the fair and free competition of the market.”
Peter Singer argues that prosperous people should donate their excess money to the overseas aid groups. When saying this, he believes Americans should stop spending their money on luxuries such as a TV, a computer, a car, and videogames. Instead of spending money on items such as that, he thought we should start sending money to those who are starving in other countries and need our help. There are pros and cons to Singer’s argument and both can be greatly supported.
The Truth About Poverty “Poverty is like punishment for a crime you didn't commit” this quote was said by Mahatma Gandhi and it relates so well with this article “It is Expensive To Be Poor”, answer the question yourself, Is it expensive to be poor? This article is titled like that to get the audience's attention early and have them thinking ahead of reading. The author Barbara Ehrenreich is building a pre thought when she does this which helps support her claim. “It is Expensive To Be Poor” by Barbara Ehrenreich is an article posted on “The atlantic” “which is where you can find your current news and analysis on politics, business, culture, and technology”. Knowing what “The Atlantic” offers for readers this gives Ehrenreich a detailed look at who she is writing to.
Injustices, tragedies, and unfortunate circumstances have plagued humankind for all of existence. Many of these problems have arisen from the society of man, and could not be found in nature. The hatred, selfishness, prejudice, and maliciousness seen in so many injustices man created unnecessarily, as well as all the suffering it causes does not need to exist. If an individual witnesses a crime or injustice occurring, it is their responsibility to defend the weak and fight for whatever is morally right, even at the cost of themselves.
In “Learning the hard way” and “ Population control the crude way”, Hardine pointed out a reason that make poor nations can’t become better. The U.S and other rich nations deposited food into the World Food Bank, the poor nations will withdraw the food from it; since the food always “available”, the poor nations will not learn to improve their
Rather, Singer’s weaker version is more plausible, that one should take necessary action where we are able to prevent bad states of affairs without sacrificing morally significant (Singer, 1972). It is clear then that moral autonomy to pursue one’s own interests is something that can constitute moral significance. An individual is morally free not to devote themselves full time to prevent famine. It is important to make a distinction between the freedom to pursue one’s own interests and the freedom of wasting resources on excessive luxuries. Singer concedes there is no justification for the purchasing of stylish new clothes as any benefit to this purchase would be sparingly little compares to the benefit it would make for the poor in donating that money (Singer, 1972).
“Food entitlement decline theory” has been criticized for its focus only on the economic aspect of famine and its failure to recognize the social and political aspect. First he fails to recognize individuals as socially embedded members of households, communities and states. Second, he fails to recognize that famine causes by political crisis as much as it is the result of economic shocks or natural disasters (Devereux, 2001). Those scholars who criticized Sen argue that importing food in a situation of existing insecurity could be the answer to minimize the food problem and to save lives (Steven Engler, et al,
CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background Hunger is still a major concern in health issues. Hunger causes malnutrition, malnutrition and others. Famine kills more people than TB, HIV / AIDS and Malaria. A quarter of children born in developing countries are underweight.