Literature Review: Theoretical Approaches, Empirical Studies, Analytical Concepts and Legal Frameworks Theoretical Approaches towards food security With respect to the theoretical approaches to food security, there are three theories developed in 1970s and 1980s as cause to food insecurity. The first one is Climate theory; this theory explains food insecurity as caused by climatic phenomena. Cox, related this theory with the concept of “famine belt” in which he directly links climate condition to food insecurity. This theory argued that in the national or local level, climate linked phenomena such as drought, floods and others are a major factor causing food insecurity (Cox, 1981, cited in Steven Engler, …show more content…
The proponents of this theory argued that food scarcity occurs when the availability of food is less than the food necessity of the population. The primary developers of this approach were Adam Smith and Malthus who argued that famines are primarily caused by a sudden decline in food availability. They consider natural drivers as the main causes for food insecurity and analyses their influence on harvest failures and advances in prices. They are supply oriented, in this sense the Food Availability Decline theory differs from climate theory. Food availability decline theory is vulnerable to criticism because it confined on food availability at local levels instead of including assessments on food availability at aggregate or macro levels. They argued that the crop failures due to natural disasters often result in high food prices, increased demand to deal with uncertainties. The decline in purchasing power affects the poor and those who are in trouble by bad weather to become food insecure (Lin and Yang 2000, cited in Galunde, …show more content…
“Food entitlement decline theory” has been criticized for its focus only on the economic aspect of famine and its failure to recognize the social and political aspect. First he fails to recognize individuals as socially embedded members of households, communities and states. Second, he fails to recognize that famine causes by political crisis as much as it is the result of economic shocks or natural disasters (Devereux, 2001). Those scholars who criticized Sen argue that importing food in a situation of existing insecurity could be the answer to minimize the food problem and to save lives (Steven Engler, et al,
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The return of Martin Guerre is a true story dealing with identity theft. This event took place in Artigat in Southern France. Martin Guerre was a peasant that disappeared for several years and was believed to have returned. However, it turned out to be an imposter.
By challenging common assumptions and being ethical he effectively claims that the solution to solving these global hunger problems is foreign assistance. Paarlberg shows Pathos, Ethos and Logos through the thought of unravelling worldwide starvation by being realistic of the view on pre-industrial food and farming. Pathos is clearly evident in Paarlberg’s article through the presentation of the food insecurity problem in Africa and Asia. He uses impassioned words as an attempt to reach out to his target audience on a more emotional level by agitating and drawing sympathy of whole food shoppers and policy makers. Paarlberg employs Pathos during the article when he says, “The majority of truly undernourished people -- 62 percent, according to the U.N. Food and Agriculture Organization -- live in either Africa or South Asia, and most are small farmers or rural landless laborers living in the countryside of Africa and South Asia” (page 611-12).
The poor are not responsible for hungry lives, without water and electricity. There are deep inequalities and fundamental deficiencies of social organization. The problem of hunger is not only a question of food production (the bigger, the better) but also of access to food and equity. There are no winners and losers. With these degrees of exclusion, we 're all losers.
However, Argument I of Singer’s essay is quite obviously correct and to argue otherwise would be foolhardy and morally cruel. Similarly, Argument III of Singer’s essay, that people in developed societies possess the resources and abilities to alleviate famine and suffering is equally hard to refute. Therefore, it is Argument II of Singer’s essay that I will examine in detail and then offer several objections that will repudiate the hypothesis of Singer’s essay, ‘Famine, Affluence, and
In the United States there are many children and adults that go hungry, due to financial problems. With the economy and how high cost of living is, it’s hard to provide, food for the family. The results of hunger on children in America are not having the right nutrition, can have serious implication for a child’s physical and mental health. Also food insecurity is harmful to all people, but it is particularly devastating to children.
World hunger has always been a problem that has plagued humanity, and through the years, it has remained an almost impossible problem to solve. However, industrialized agriculture has become a possible solution to world hunger with its ability to produce more food on less land than traditional methods. Industrialized agriculture is the solution Robert Paarlberg offers in his article, “Attention Whole Food Shoppers” which first appeared in April 2010 edition of Foreign Policy. Paarlberg attempts to use specific criteria to demonstrate the benefits of industrialized agriculture, such as its impacts on world hunger, the income gap, and global politics. Paarlberg was to an extent successful at proving his points and persuading his intended audience.
is Looking on the other side of hunger, those who live with wealth and do not share the problems of the poor have actually increased in their prosperity, “The share of the nation 's income going to the top 1 percent of its citizens is at its highest level since 1928.” [This disparity has grown even more in the last decade, since the article was written] Not only have the wealthy increased in their wealth, but as they do it becomes harder to make change “An agriculture bill that would have increased aid and the food-stamp allotment has been knocking around Congress, where no one ever goes hungry.” Because of difference in lifestyle, the people of power believe they have no prerogative to help those in
Who do you imagine when someone says food insecurity or hunger? Do you imagine someone severely underweight? Or maybe children in third world countries because surely hunger isn 't here in the United states. But, in fact, hunger is here in the United States, the documentary A Place at the Table defines someone who is food insecure as someone who does not know where their next meal is coming from, they have no idea how to manage, find, or afford food.
In the world, there are one billion people undernourished and one and a half billion more people overweight. In this day and age, where food has become a means of profit rather than a means of keeping people thriving and healthy, Raj Patel took it upon himself to explore why our world has become the home of these two opposite extremes: the stuffed and the starved. He does so by travelling the world and investigating the mess that was created by the big men (corporate food companies) when they took power away from the little men (farmers and farm workers) in order to provide for everyone else (the consumers) as conveniently and profitably as possible. In his book Stuffed and Starved: The Hidden Battle for the World Food System, Patel reveals his findings and tries to reach out to people not just as readers, but also as consumers, in hopes of regaining control over the one thing that has brought us all down: the world food system.
This farmland is the only source of food for most of these communities, and these communities are left with nothing after these natural disasters. The third main cause of world hunger is agricultural practices. Recently farmers have seen deforestation, desertification, soil erosion, and drought more often than in the past. These problems can easily destroy the arable land. The fourth main cause of world hunger is population growth.
In “Learning the hard way” and “ Population control the crude way”, Hardine pointed out a reason that make poor nations can’t become better. The U.S and other rich nations deposited food into the World Food Bank, the poor nations will withdraw the food from it; since the food always “available”, the poor nations will not learn to improve their
Society tends to create places that are not friendly or look down upon people who are poor or just their harsh circumstances. So many people in today’s world are indulging in social criminality such as drug related activities, prostitution/ sex trafficking, and committing petty crimes to meet their basic needs, because these people are so vulnerable and is willing to do anything for a meal higher authority such as the government, and politicians often take advantage of this certain group of people. In the article, Food, Pantries, Poverty and Social Justice the author states “Food insecurity is only part of poverty, inadequate nutrition all too often is associated with inadequate shelter, lack of health care, bad education, and poverty is at the core all.” (Greenberg p3). Poverty brings so many life struggles and complications that may result in extreme hungry.
Even the number of hungry people in the world exceeds the total population of US and European Union. Extreme hunger and mal¬nutrition remain as blockade to development and creates a set up from which people cannot easily go out. Hunger and malnutrition mean less productive individuals, who are more susceptible to disease and often unable to earn much more and improve their livelihoods. There are nearly 800 million people in this world who suffer from hunger worldwide, the major¬ity
Food security is one of the greatest problems faced the world. There is fact said that food is enough for everyone in the world but because of the great changes which happened rapidly in the world the rate of food become less than before and it is difficult to secure it. Food security is very important to ensure that everyone has enough to eat and families can build their communities without worrying about securing their live. To meet global needs, food production must be doubled in the next years in order to solve many issues such as: starvation, malnutrition and associated health. According to The World Food Summit of 1996 defined food security as existing “when all people at all times have access to sufficient, safe, nutritious food to maintain