Based on electron configurations, one is able to determine the probable locations of electrons in a series of levels called energy levels. Different energy levels are able to contain different numbers of electrons. Each level is thought to be further away from the nucleus. The first energy level, nearest to the nucleus, will hold two electrons. The second energy level will hold 8 electrons; the third energy level will hold 18 electrons; the fourth energy level will hold 32 electrons; the fifth energy level will hold 32 electrons, as well and it goes on.
Unit 8 LAB- Photoelectric Effect Created by Young Su Kang Materials: • Google PhET Simulation- photoelectric effect Vocabulary: • Electron volt– a unit of energy that is equal to the energy of an electron that is accelerated by a potential difference of 1 volt • Frequency- the number of times something happens in a given period of time • Intensity- a measure of how much energy passes through a region in a given time • Photoelectric effect- the emission of electrons from the surface of a material when struck by electromagnetic radiation • Photon- the smallest possible amount of light; a quantum of light. • Voltage- a measure of the strength of an electrical field. • Wavelength- the distance between consecutive crests or troughs of a wave • Work function- the minimum energy required to remove an electron from a solid
This discovery is so important because protons are what define what element an atom is. Bohr also used that discovery to find that electrons travel in orbits around the nucleus. Rutherford’s model is called the “solar system model” because in his model because the electrons orbit the nucleus almost like they are like planets orbiting the sun. Rutherford paved the way for the modern model of the atom. He also theorized the existence of the neutron which later was confirmed by James Chadwick in 1932.
Particles are labeled in many ways. One way particles are referred to be as atoms (elements). They’re identified by their properties, number or protons and neutrons and atomic number. Another way particles are referred are as molecules (covalently bonded- nonmetal to nonmetal). For example, water is a molecule because it’s composed of nonmetals.
Question # 1: Part A How many electrons and protons in an atom of vanadium? Answer # 1: Atomic number = number of protons = 23 Mass number = number of protons + neutrons Mass number = 51 g/mole Number of neutrons = 51-23 Number of Neutrons = 28 Number of electrons = atomic number = 23 Question # 1: Part B Explain in 2 or 3 sentences how the atomic weight is what is reported. Answer # 1: Atomic weight or atomic mass is basically the average mass of atoms of an element. Atomic mass is calculated by using the naturally occurring relative abundance of isotopes. Atomic weight determines the size of the atom.
The “cloud” of electrons surrounding the nucleus give off a negative charge. Electrons are a stable subatomic particle with a charge of negative electricity, found in all atoms and acting as the primary carrier of electricity in solids. Inside the dense nucleus, are protons and neutrons (Doc. 2). Protons are a stable subatomic particle with a positive charge that is the opposite of an electron and occurs in all atomic nuclei.
Introduction of NMR spectroscopy Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is a form of absorption spectroscopy by which a nuclei under investigation absorbs the energy from an external magnetic field and resonances or excites from a low energy state to a high energy state. It involves the disintegration of spin state into two spin states of unequal energy. The emerging radiofrequency is absorbed in a magnetic field resulting to the magnetic properties of the nuclei which getting up from the axial spin. Hence, different NMR absorption spectrum can be obtained which contains one to several groups of absorption lines in the radiofrequency part of the electromagnetic spectrum depends on the particular nucleus. Apparently, the location of peaks
“Hydrogen bomb or H-bomb, is a weapon deriving a large portion of its energy from the nuclear fusion of hydrogen isotopes. In an atomic bomb, uranium or plutonium is split into lighter elements that together weigh less than the original atoms, the remainder of the mass appearing as energy. Unlike this fission bomb, the hydrogen bomb functions by the fusion, or joining together, of lighter elements into heavier elements. The end product again weighs less than its components, the difference once more appearing as energy. Because extremely high temperatures are required in order to initiate fusion reactions, the hydrogen bomb is also known as a thermonuclear bomb.” The hydrogen bomb is the most powerful bomb ever created.
Introduction Nuclear energy is the energy that is found in the nucleus of an atom. Atoms are smaller particles, which can be divided into a material. In the nucleus of each atom there are two types of particles (neutrons and protons) which are always united. Nuclear energy is the energy that allows the permanent union of neutrons and protons. In this section, we discuss the pros and cons of nuclear energy.