Psy 270 Week 1 Case Study Of Autism Spectrum Disorder

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Autism Spectrum Disorder is a brain-based developmental disorder that involves multiple abnormal perceptual, cognitive, linguistic and social behaviors. With rates of Autism Spectrum Disorder rising, it is important that we improve our understanding of the causes of the disorder and become more culturally aware and sensitive to screening for the disorder in order to find effective interventions. Understanding of the current clinical picture, etiology and treatment of ASD will be discussed. Autism was a label coined in the early 20th century from the Greek word autos meaning “self” as it was used to refer to individuals who would “withdrawal from the fabric of social life into the self” (Hallahan, Kauffman, Pullen, 2015, pp.210). Symptoms…show more content…
A psychiatrist diagnoses Autism using criteria established by the American Psychiatric Association’s DSM-5 though observation of the child in an examining room and recording observations made by the parents. Clinicians may also ask parents and teachers to complete behavior checklists such as the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule and the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised after observing the child’s behavior at home and in the classroom (Hallahan, Kauffman, Pullen, 2015, pp. 216). Clinicians look for signs in social, communication and behavioral differences. Some social differences are that a child with Autism would have little or no eye contact and do not read social cues. They do not respond to a parent’s smile or other facial expressions and often have inappropriate facial expressions. They do not show concern or empathy for others, they do not bring objects of personal interest to parents, nor do they look at objects or events a parent is looking at or pointing to. They are unable to, or uninterested in making friends and are overly literal. Some communication differences are that they do not point at things to indicate needs or share things with others. They also may exhibit language patterns called parroting or echolalia meaning they repeat exactly what others say without understanding the meaning. They do not respond to their name being called, they mix up pronouns, they often do not want to…show more content…
New data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention concludes that with a 30 percent increase in the past two years, 1 in 68 U.S. children have been diagnosed with ASD concluding that early intervention can greatly improve a child’s long-term development and social behaviors (Autism 2014). There are several factors that may contribute to the rising prevalence rate of ASD. Like other disabilities, the occurrence rate of ASD for boys is five times higher than it is for girls. There could be several reasons for this disparity (Hallahan, Kauffman, Pullen, 2015, pp. 211). An article in Times Magazine entitled “Why Girls May be Protected Against Autism” explores why this may be the case. There may be genetic factors that increase the risk among boys or maybe there are factors that protect girls against being as susceptible to developing ASD. Maia Sxalavitz discussed how a research team analyzed data collected from twins. The team theorized that if there were something protecting girls from ASD, the girls who did develop ASD would “have to be faced with a heavier burden of whatever genetic or environmental risk factors cause ASD in order to actually develop it” (Szalavitz, 2013). Researchers also conclude that perhaps genetic factors involve hormones oxytocin and vasopressin. They believe that “girls have less vasopressin and higher natural oxytocin…a social hormone” (Szalavitz, 2013). Hallahan,

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