Outline and evaluate biosocial explanations of Gender Dysphoria Biosocial explanations claim that biological influences interact with social influences to cause gender dysphoria. Biological influences include genetic and hormonal factors which can create a vulnerability in affected individuals to develop gender dysphoria. However, this biological vulnerability will only result in gender dysphoria if it is also combined with social influences, such as family relationships or gender-inappropriate reinforcement by parents. Therefore, the biosocial approach uses a ‘diathesis-stress’ model to explain gender dysphoria. The biological approach to gender dysphoria is based on the idea that there are genetic and hormonal influences on brain development which create psychological differences between males and females, and may play a role in gender identity.
The old DSM-IV TR referred the three types of ADHD symptoms as subtypes, but with the new DSM-5 system, they are now referred to as presentations, because ADHD symptoms constantly change in children and adult throughout their lifetime. The DSM-5 is a new trend adopted by the APA in an effort to better describe how the ADHD affects any child at different stages of life of that child. APA, (2013). The APA expressed that, children with this disorder have trouble focusing and misbehaving at one time or another. They advise that parents and healthcare professionals should keep a close eye on the children that shows obvious signs of ADHD.
As the child matures into an adult, these dysfunctional tendencies will often lead to law breaking and substance abuse (Mayo Clinic, 2013). It is not known what causes antisocial personality disorder but there are a number of theories that attempt to explain the origins of this disorder (Medline Plus Medical Encyclopedia, 2012). Pathophysiology There are three main theories that attempt to explain where and why this disorder occurs—the psychodynamic, behavioral, and biological models. Psychodynamic theorists propose that this disorders origin begin in infancy. Infants have the need to build trust with their parents or guardians.
He does not show much communication towards others. He did not make eye contact with Brother Allen or his mother. He does not respond to his own name or when he ears sounds, such as the rattle. When a toy was taken from him he would squeal and cry. Jace does address his mom.
(2010) studied patients with early-onset AD for their prevalence of non-memory presenting symptoms and comparing them with patients with late-onset AD. The authors, with different academic and work backgrounds, sought to test the hypothesis that younger patients more often present themselves in a memory clinic setting with prominent non-memory impairment and reasonably preserved memory function. By comparing patients with early-onset AD and late-onset AD, the study approved the hypothesis as the prevalence of non-memory presentations among the patients with early-onset AD was found to be five times higher than late-onset AD cases. Koedam, et al. (2010) thus recommend that the clinical presentation of early-onset AD be more variable than for late-onset AD and the emphasis should not be limited to memory impairment as the core criteria.
Studies from the Glaucoma research foundation has found that siblings of persons diagnosed with glaucoma have nearly a 10-fold increased risk of having glaucoma when compared to siblings of persons without glaucoma. This means that a 65 year old sibling of a European-derived person has about a 10% chance of having glaucoma, while a 65 year old sibling of an African American has nearly a 20% chance of having glaucoma. Clearly brothers and sisters of patients with glaucoma can benefit from regular eye examinations with special attention to careful screening for glaucoma.” (Glaucoma Research Foundation, et al, 2015). This is interesting in the sense that it makes you wonder why this statistic is the way that it is. Also it makes you wonder if there are racial differences that influence the prevalence of such diseases on African American
Children are the future. That is why it is important for them to receive the best healthcare as possible. However, there are some questions as to what is included in the best healthcare, including whether or not it is safe for children to be vaccinated. Questions arose when an article was published with alarming results that indicated vaccines could be the cause of autism in children. The disputed article lead to many anti-vaccine movements.
The readers feel the unique life of a teenager with an autism disease. For example, anything the color yellow or brown is an automatic no-no. Christopher doesn’t eat, touch, smell anything yellow or brown… he detests those two colors. The author writes, “H. Not liking yellow things or brown things and refusing to touch yellow things or brown things” (Haddon 46).
Of all the branches of modern medicine, vaccinology can claim to be the one that has contributed most to the spectacular increase in life expectancy in the last two centuries. Currently, it is estimated that immunization saves the lives of 3 million children a year but 2 million more lives could be saved by existing vaccines. The Science Behind Why Vaccines Help Some scientists estimated the population-wide benefits of routinely vaccinating US children against influenza. Vaccination of 20% of children would reduce the total number of influenza cases in the US by 46%; 80% coverage would reduce the total number of cases by 91%. Similar reductions were estimated to occur in influenza-related mortality and economic costs.