In the same way, humanists oppose racism, sexism, torture, unfair imprisonment, persecution because of beliefs and inequalities in wealth and education or everything that stand in the way of human welfare, development and progress. Therefore, the core aim of humanism is to improve human lives by fulfilling equal human rights. How was the world created? Humanists believe in the scientific method, which means observation and experiment to find out how the world works. Therefore, the belief that The Big Bang theory was how the universe began is dominant in humanism.
Aristotle does not agree with this idea of the human condition and so uses biology as the paradigm for knowledge. This encloses his view that knowledge need not be of the eternal but by observing the world around us we can be improve our knowledge. Although Plato was of the belief that any approach had a universally broad and excellent form in philosophy Aristotle concluded that all universal forms are independent and should be analysed on their own. This frame of reference led to Aristotelian Empiricism. Whereas Plato thought that experiments and reasoning are enough to provide the qualities of an object, Aristotle was in favour of the experience and observation.
Do humans live to find their essence or they live because of essence? In existentialism, the main point of view is reversing the belief that essence is more important than existence. This idea is the philosophy of the existentialist, Jean Paul Sartre. Life is a big factor for every human. While we exist in this world, we are not sure in everything.
He has given an example, that Frankenstein’s monster has no meaning by its origin but could still find his own meaning, to support meaning can be determined not by the past. Creationism is a religious aspect to examine the meaning of life. There is a creator that has created life. As creator would not create things without meaning, life should have a meaning. This position has the same viewpoints of meaning of life as naturalism, which is the origin of life gives life a meaning.
According to Aristotle: If you want to know the truth about human nature it only involves the understanding of our own world and not an immaterial self. The ability to reason is that attribute of a human which positions him apart from the creatures of the rest of the
Second, and even more important, humans have “an intrinsic worth, i.e., dignity,” because they are rational agents that is, capable of reasoning about his conduct and who freely decides what he will do, on the basis of his own rational conception of what is best.” (Rachels, 2003) As a human person having the capacity of reason and rationality, Rachels (2003) further states that, “Because the moral law is the law of reason, rational beings are the embodiment of the moral law itself. The only way that moral goodness can
It discusses the natural components of everything and the philosophical view of how everything started existing. Self-realization is on the other hand both a psychological and philosophical aspect. It refers to the state of mind of a human being fulfilled with their life and a feeling that they have attained a certain goal. Among all the theories that discuss the human mind, Aristotle’s is the only theory that has steered clear of self-interest. According to the theory, Aristotle argues that good is the ultimate thing that every human being seeks or should seek to achieve.
He said that the soul needs a stimulus from the bodily senses because through it one can learn things even its own existence. • Peter John Olivi (13th Century) His studies added about the theory of the human soul. He asserted that human soul is constituted with the following principle or form; the vegetative, the sensitive, and the intellectual. This very thing indicates that he did not follow the Augustinian tradition and became an independent thinker. • Roger Marston (13th Century) He supported the Augustinian theories of the soul, and his studies emphasized that the active intellect which is the soul is the primal and uncreated light.
Furthermore, it will conclude different arguments that show the role of knowledge in creating and developing civilization through connecting and proving them with pieces of evidence from texts. The first argument is that knowledge is a blessing that should be sought, the second one is that civilization consists of morality, and the third one discusses the importance of enlightenment in creating a civilization free from prejudices. Ignorance is a curse for knowledge is a blessing. Humans are driven by curiosity to discover the unknown especially if it is forbidden. By definition, “Curiosity is the lust of the mind.”(Hobbes, 35).
According to Aristotle, the objective of every human being in life should be to reach eudaimonia, which is a Greek word referring to happiness. Aristotle theory states that the goal of every individual is to flourish in life that is, living a satisfactory life. An individual ought to function properly in thought and action to excel in life. The foundation of virtue is on three major principles intellectual, behavioral and affective. According to the intellectual principle, human beings ought to know how to make right and just decisions, which lack bias (Curzer, 2012).