The view of learning as restructuring and replacing old beliefs implies that transition involves unlearning as much as it does learning. A further hypothesis suggests that instruction may need to recapitulate transitions in the history of science to help learners transit from their own naive theories. Conceptual recapitulation refers to a means of remediating learning problems by retracing instructionally what should have been naturally occurring developmental stages for an individual (Case, Sandieson, & Dennis, 1986). But it might fit the historical recapitulation hypothesis as well. There also seem to be qualitative shifts in the mental models needed by learners to understand more complex systems, for example, in such domains as electricity (Frederiksen & White, in press).
And in another study did by Wolters et al., (1996) endorsement of performance goal orientation positively predicted students’ task value, self-efficacy, and cognitive and self-regulatory strategy use. Often, performance goals orientation has been associated with a maladaptive pattern of cognition, affect, and behavior (Review on Ames, 1992; Dweck & Leggett, 1988). However, unlike the researches concerning mastery goals, research concerning performance goals are inconsistent. In studies conducted by Maehr and Midgley and their colleagues (e.g., Anderman & Midgley, 1997; Kaplan & Midgley,
The motivations to joint ventures for strategic reasons are numerous. These motives primarily relate to amplifying of both the market power (Boyle, 1968; Fusfeld, 1958; Mead, 1967; Pate, 1969) and higher performance with competitive maximization (Backman, 1965; Berg & Friedman, 1977,1978; Stuckey, 1983). Vernon (1983), sees joint ventures as a defensive mechanism for firms to hedge against strategic uncertainty. Especially in industries of moderate concentration where collusion is difficult to achieve despite of the potential benefits of coordinating the interdependence among
However, it has been acknowledged that, in differentiated products markets, tough competition may rule the market even when only two firms compete. The reason is that in these markets the degree of competition depends on the differentiation of the product rather than on the number of competitors. Then, the extent to which the merging firms will increase prices will depend on the degree of substitution between the merging products and the remaining ones. More specifically, the potential enhancement of market power due to a horizontal merger is analyzed under the unilateral effects or coordinated effects of the merger. While coordinated effects refer to the scope of collusion, facilitated by the lower number of competitors, unilateral effects refer to the risk that the merged firm, acting independently of any remaining rivals, finds profitable to raise prices after the merger.
By taking insights from outside the company and complementing them with the internal R&D dept., companies enrich their explicit knowledge and are able to create radical innovation (Trippl, Maier & Tödtling, 2012, p.114). According to Nonaka, the process from explicit to tacit knowledge is very important to unleash digital innovation capabilities. By sharing explicit knowledge throughout the company employees “begin to internalize it – they use it to broaden, extend and/or reframe their own tacit knowledge” (Nonaka, 2007,
C. Large organizations are pursuing a differentiation strategy need to stay agile with their new product development processes. Otherwise, they risk attack on several fronts by competitors pursuing focus differentiation strategies in different market segments. Therefore, this action will have a positive effect on Rivalry and Supplier Power. IV. Business Process: UMUC Haircuts needs many changes and improvements, but one of the most important processes that need improvement is that Myra needs to have more training in management skills and create a fast and reliable scheduling process.
Through single loop learning, if said action yields an unexpected result, feedback is taken and a different approach will thus be implemented. Double Loop Learning Argyris and Schon (1978) describes double loop learning as more of a transformational process. It involves altering an organisation’s prior knowledge and competency base. Snell and Chak (1998) explains this as viewing problems from a different perspective and as a result, develop new goals, policies and perceptions. Argyris et al.
Project Management in Inner Source has emerged as a very important and relevant concept in recent years. We’ve seen the emergence of lots of open source tools such as MySQL and OpenOffice which have been developed through the collaboration of many different developers all around the world. Project Management in inner source is vastly different to traditional software project management and it has its own unique benefits and drawbacks. Inner source project management can add huge value to an organisation undertaking a new project. “It leads to increased software reuse and higher software quality due to an increased availability, openness and transparency of the software” (Gaughan et al, 2009).
With the rapid changes of technologies environment, organizations have to continually redefine their product offerings if they want to stay ahead in the competitive race. Realizing that, implementing successful knowledge management becomes a vital issue in many organizations and it’s able to attract attention from both academicians and practitioners. There are various definition used to describe knowledge management and its processes. Gupta, Iyer and Aronson (2000) defined knowledge management as process that helps organizations to find, select, organize, disseminate, and transfer important information and expertise essential for activities such as problem solving, dynamic learning, strategic planning and decision making. As stated by McCampbell, Clare and Gitters (1999) taken from Manasco (1996), define knowledge management as the strategies and processes of identifying, capturing and leveraging knowledge to enhance competitiveness.
resources in achieving competitive advantage Outsourcing has become a popular and much sought after strategy in gaining competitive advantage to firms in the present era. However, this mentioned strategy could also bring about changes within the organization, be it working patterns, management styles or organizational culture which can disrupt the activities of the company. In avoiding such disruptions, a measured approach should be taken towards change management and how the resources could be reallocated in gaining advantages. T.F Cawfey & Gene Desceza, their book organizational change, refer to organizational change as “a planned alternation of organizational components to improve the effectiveness of the organization”. Organizational