Determinants of Pneumonia in children Indonesia study case Introduction Pneumonia commonly is caused by bacteria such as Streptococcus pneumoniae ,Haemophilus influenzae, Staphylococcus aureus, and some strains of respiratory virus like influenza, parainfluenza, and adenovirus (NCID, 2005). This disease in children is characterized by cough with difficult or rapid breathing and chest indrawing. (Wardlaw et al, 2006) Pneumonia contributes greatly for children death below 5 year in the world. Figure 1 describes that more than 10 million children in the world die before they reach their fifth birthday. Approximately 2.6 millions children younger than 5 years die annually from Pneumonia, most of them in the low income country.
According to the CDC, “approximately half of the babies less than one year old who get pertussis need treatment in the hospital” (Fast Facts). The pertussis vaccine, discovered in 1906 was developed by Bordet and Gengou. It is a common virus that is more well known for affecting babies. The virus also known as “Whooping Cough” for the sound the host makes while trying to catch their breath. A single person with, “pertussis can infect up to 12 to 15 other people” (Pertussis F.A.Q).
In the united states, the incidence of diarrhea varies between (1 to 2.5) diarrheal episodes per child per year, leading to approximately 38 million cases (2-3.7) million physician visits, 220,000 hospitalizations, and (325-425) deaths annually. McKinney et al., (2000) reported that the "diarrhea one of the most common disorders in childhood, is defined as an increase fluidity, and volume of stools". In the united states, children younger than 5 years experience (20-35) million episodes of diarrhea, with more than 200,000 hospitalization per year. Lawrence, (1994) reported that "bouts of diarrhea and intestinal tract disease are much less common in breastfed infants than in bottle-fed infants, but when they occur, the infant should be maintained on the breast if possible". Human milk is a physiologic solution that normally causes neither dehydration nor hypernatremia.
How the flu affects children A. Children are at a higher risk for catching the flu. 1. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the CDC, Each year an average of 20,000 children under the age of 5 are hospitalized because of influenza complications. 2.Children should be vaccinated in the month of October if possible.
FAO reported that 2008 was the second largest crop in history. That same year, according to Action International, five million children died of hunger. It has been shown that the planet can produce food for a population more significant than the current one. However, 1.02 billion people suffer from famine (1 in 6.5), and 100 million more joined last years. The poor are not responsible for hungry lives, without water and electricity.
Pediatric pneumonia is the most common cause of mortality in children. Although , there are cures for this infection , if not detected early , it can pose to be life threatening. Most cases of pediatric pneumonia are found in developing countries like Bangladesh , Nigeria and the Sub Saharan Region. According to WHO , as of 2013 , the causality rate caused by pneumonia is at 2 million, amongst children under the age of five. This dramatically rising number proves that there is a need to understand the etiology of this infection , and determine what factors can be assessed to help in early detection of pneumonia.
Approximately 7.0% of the world’s population is thalassaemia carrier and an estimated 300,000 babies are born each year with this disorder. More than 80% of these births occur in low or middle-income countries. These countries have limited resources where priority tends to be given to combat high rates of infant and child mortality from infectious diseases and malnutrition (Weatherall, 2001). As a result, thalassaemia receive little
1.1 Inflammatory phase Inflammatory phase can be further divided into hemostasis and inflammation, which is triggered immediately and last for about two to five days succeeding injury. 1.1.1 Hemostasis Hemostasis, the process of stopping bleeding after an injury, involves three key processes, vasoconstriction,
Acute Otitis Media Blaire, the 10-month-old patient, came into the doctor’s office with tugging of the ears. The doctor soon after diagnosed Blaire with bilateral acute otitis media. This disease primarily occurs in children between the ages of 6 months to 2 years.3 This is because the eustachian tube in children is in a different shape as compared to adults. The shape is shorter and more horizontal in children.4 This allows for an infection to stay in the tube for a much longer time. The infection occurs mostly after a viral infection has lowered the immune system and has inflamed and obstructed the eustachian tube.
One woman dies of cervical cancer every 8 minutes in India. Following below the most recent statistics available for survival by the current staging system. Stage Relative 5-Year survival Rate 0 93% IA 93% IB 80% IIA 63% IIB 58% IIIA 35% IIIB 32% IVA 16% IVB 15% Why are some cancers diagnosed late? As we all know that late diagnosis ant late initiation of treatment lead to more chance of morbidity and mortality. In UK, around 25% of cancers are diagnosed through emergency admission to hospital and most of them have lower chances of survival compared to other patients.