Primary sources that are used include pieces of news and broadcasts that are used as propaganda while secondary sources include studies on various theories of propaganda and their impact on general public and international relations and policies. Hypotheses (i) Media can and should be used for the purpose of peace
According to Padel Ford, foreign policy is the key element in the process by which certain states translates its conceived goals and interest into concrete course of action to attain these objectives and interest. It can be said that foreign policy requires official external relations by independent actor as one of the way to pursuit national interest. Other than that, foreign policy is defined as decisions and actions of certain states in international relations and it is one of the instrument of policy implementation. Some of the objectives of foreign policy are to seek territorial integrity of a country and to protect the interest of its citizen. In addition to that, it is to promote their national interest, such as the security, natural resources preservation and the well-being of its citizen.
The principal difference between the first two means of propaganda conveyance is that the latter, which is strategic propaganda, aims to instigate behavioural change to its audience (i.e. affecting their values, concepts, beliefs etc. ), while the former, intents to produce an instantaneous response from its viewers. The persuasive and affective propagandas, on the other hand, primarily varies on the language of the message is advocated. In persuasive propagandas, there is a high accountability poignant words usage with accordance to the rhetorical rules of speech organization (i.e.
Public relations specialists do not necessarily tell ‘the truth’, but communicate messages that make it look like they are telling the truth. The same applies to marketing specialists. They might come up with a slogan like “The one and only…” in order to promote a product. Nevertheless, chances are that there are similar products on the market. However, the job of a marketing specialist is the beneficial marketing of a product in order to motivate people to buy a particular product from a certain brand.
The aim of propaganda is to actively influence people’s opinions, rather than to merely communicate the facts about something. Propaganda can be used to support or for the disapproval of something, depending on the goal of the propagandist, (Pierce, 2015). There are several different types of propaganda techniques that are used in books and movies. I will be analysing and discussing the different types of propaganda techniques used as a means to maintain power and control in the book “Nineteen Eighty-four”, by George Orwell and, the movie, “Equilibrium”, written and directed by Kurt Wimmer. In both the book and the movie propaganda was used to maintain power and control over the people of the society.
Political ideas assist to promote order and social stability as a result of the provision of a political culture in society (Heywood 2003, 4). Naturally, a unifying set of political ideas can develop within a society. However, it can also be enforced to build obedience which operates as a form of social control. The values of elite groups such as political and military leaders, government officials, landowners or industrialists may diverge significantly from those of the masses. Ruling elites might use political ideas to contain opposition and restrict debate through the process of ideological manipulation.
F.S Northedge says that foreign policy implies “the use of political influence in order to induce other state to experience”. Prof. Joseph Frankel says that “foreign policy consists decisions and action which involve to some appreciable extents relation between one state and others”. According to Rode, Anderson and Cristal foreign policy involves the formulation and implementation of principles of groups which shapes to the behavior pattern of a state in its negotiation with the others state, to protect or promote its vital interest. 1) Determinants of Foreign Policy: The foreign policy of a country is compounded of many factors and forces. Some of them are permanent, others temporary.
Conflict representation theory/study This research project aims at unpacking conflict representations, therefore it is essential to understand the techniques and strategies implemented when representing conflict. Political leaders invest time and resources in in order to promote official frames to media (Gadi Wolfsfeld, Paul Frosh & Maurice T. Awabdy 2008:401). Galtung 1998, Manoff 1998 & Wolfsfeld 2004 cited by Wolfsfeld et al (2008:401) explains that the ways in which the news media represent conflicts “are also likely to have a significant influence on any subsequent attempts at conflict resolution”. Annelore Deprez and Karin Raeymaeckers (2010:92) explain that the “selection and construction of news items, the picture that we see of ‘the foreign’, is a filtered, distorted, manipulated, one-sided and simplified image”. Looking at the techniques used by the media one may understand how this statement is given substance.
From the social constructivists view ‘’terrorism’’ is constructed by some special group who want to achieve some particular goals through some instruments. And they also want to get some political needs. .“Terrorism” in terrorism discourse is created by the process of inter-group communication and interplay of political interests and aspirations for power. It is socially and politically produced and it is a process of communication at rooted in language and this have shared
Tonality, linked with the study of framing, is an important component in examining how an audience perceives certain issues (Messner and South, 2011). In a nutshell, the research has somehow proved that tones in news coverage, particularly this event, could be a factor that influences voter’s preference, due to the fact that there is