Social Influence, Gender, and Masculine Ideology Introduction The ability to have an influence can give an individual a sense of where they stand in society (Mahaffy, 2004). Social influence can be correlated to whether or not you are able to persuade someone to hire you for a job, give you a promotion, or take you stance on a political issue (Carli, 2001). Social Influence can have an impact on an individual and on a community of like individuals. Things that can affect your social influence may stem from inequalities that exist in our society, such as gender, and race. Studies show that gender plays a role in how influential a person is, particularly when considering how women influence men. Race can exacerbate the effect that gender has …show more content…
Women are expected to be more warm and communal, not dominant and agentic (Eagly & Karau, 1991). When women succeed in areas traditionally dominated by men, women are disliked and viewed more negatively (Heilman, et. al., 2004). If women use aggressive language they are seen as uncharacteristic and as having broken social rules. On the other hand, women who use more prosaically and less intense language are found to be more persuasive (Burgoon, Dillard, Doran, 1983). This is possibly due to prosocial methods of speech are expected of women and are viewed as being in line with societies stereotype of female behavior. These stereotypes in society could be why men tend to emerge more as leaders in leaderless groups than women do. Expectations for men are to be more agentic as in: independent, assertive, competent, and masterful. Expectations foe women are to be more communal, as in: more selfless, friendly, caring, and emotionally open (Eagly, & Karau, …show more content…
Unless the very ridged culturally defined ideas of masculinity are loosened and redefined there will be continued resistance of women leaders. Positive examples of men in more nurturing, communal, and friendly roles could help to redefine masculinity. Changes in one gender identity are reliant on the other gender, because in the gender dichotomy, both genders need to work to create new standards and limitations for themselves and each other. Limitations Many studies were performed on college students, especially psychology students receiving extra-credit for an intro or general psychology course. These results may not be as applicable or replicable outside of the university environment. Some studies only found marginally significant results with gender interactions (Chaiken, 1979). There are more similarities between men and women than there are noted differences. Many studies sometimes stretch the differences between men and women but mostly the results are only slightly significant (Hyde,
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Male and Female Communication” tries to indicate some of the male and female differences in communication and find the answer to the question “Why don’t you understand” by discussing the points which cause to ask this question. Giulia claims that although men and women have physical and psychological differences, they also differ from each other in communication ways. Most men see the conservation as a competitive situation in which they can show their dominant characteristics and gain status. However, this case is different for women; thus, relationship and confirmation are significant factors for women. Another point is that differences between men and women’s communication are related to socialization.
On an article called “Here’s Why Banning The Word ‘Bossy’ Is Great For Women” by Drake Baer, women are expected to be more nurturing, collaborative, and kind. While men are more assertive, commanding, and direct. That is why women are often hurt for asserting themselves to others. When women speak in a very direct style, sometimes social groups will push back and try to get away from her. If a they speak directly, she’ll be less likable by others around her.
It is the masculine ideals and norms that are privileged over others in society. The participant also noted that if she wanted to be in leadership position it would be a challenge considering that the higher up in rank you go in any career there will be more males. To lead as female and a woman, would require a change in the way you behave and speak but at the same, “you have to cater to people around you, you can’t be threatening cause you’re a woman or you’ll be seen as bossy and overbearing,” said participant four. This communication barrier is the kind that is described in the Tannen excerpt, “[W]orkplaces that have had men in positions of power have already established male-style interactions as the norm.”
Girls often receive ratings from others, and evaluate themselves, as more helpful, cooperative, and sympathetic than boys, but their actual behavior is not consistently different from that of boys. However, girls are more likely to seek and to receive help than are boys, and some studies indicate that girls are more easily influenced than boys (Eisenberg & Fabes, 1998; Ruble & Martin, 1998). When attempting to influence others, boys are more likely to use threats and physical force. Girls tend to use verbal persuasion or, if that does not work, simply to stop their efforts to influence the other person (Serbin, Moller, Gulko, Powlishta, & Colburne,
Masculinity, according to Kimmel (1994), is not a manifestation of our inner-self but rather a social construct consisting of attributes and behaviors associated with boys and men that are a part of historical culture. While masculinity can vary across the globe depending on cultures, Western society’s common masculinity traits include dominance, assertiveness, sexual ability, and intelligence (cite). Masculinity, from a Western view, has been too narrow, making young men’s interests less valuable by the evolving social conditions in which they live (Clayton, Hewitt, & Gaffney, 2004). From the framework of masculinity, there has been a shift into hypermasculinity, which is an overemphasis and exaggerated adherence to the traditional male gender roles
Morghan Renfrow Instructor C. Shackelford English 1113, Section 101 1 September 2016 Analysts of “How Male and Female Students Use Language Differently” An essay written by Deborah Tannen called “How male and females students use language differently”, is describing how they talk and interact with others. The writer presents different studies on how language changes based on a certain person. The essay states that men are more aggressive and talkative, while women are calm and modest about talking about the views they share.
The Final statement analysed was that "organizations are gendered in that they are symbolically and ideologically described and conceived in terms of a discourse that draws on hegemonically defined masculinities" (Britton,p.420). This statement says that in order to succeed, you must have masculine traits, like assertiveness, independence, competitiveness, and thick-skinned personalities. Bosses do not want to have feminine traits that they might associate as weak, gentleness, and dependent on others for power positions in the
Men must pass many, “…tests among, peers, family, and these institutions…to be assigned “real men” status by relevant others” (Rios and Sarabia, p. 173). Thus, it is likely easier for men in power to be able to pass these tests and prove their masculinity, than it is for men of lower status and resources. Therefore, the authors’ claim that masculinity is a socially assigned factor for the majority of men, is
Lastly, the authors believe that women should be more agentic and masculine qualities while serving as leaders. Men should adopt collaborative and communal style of leadership (insert citation). Both men and women should share similar personality while leading because this would create a more diverse workplace environment. I believe it is important for both genders to be able to learn and communicate with each other, because this would bolster both women and men to be more successful.
Gender stereotypes form the foundation of sexism, or the discriminatory beliefs that males are of more value than females. Most common forms of sexism in the modern society, incorporate gender-role expectations, such as expecting women to stay at home and to be the caretakers of the household. Sexism also includes expectations people has on how that individual of a gender group should behave. Research have shown that gender socialization happens through four major aspects, which is family, education, friends, and media. Each one of these aspects have a big impact on a person’s identity and on how a person act and behave (Collins,
Social conditioning and expectation of genders to act a certain way creates space for inequality to thrive. It is a cause for concern when most of today’s culture still believes that sex and gender are interchangeable and masculinity and femininity are not. Labels can be helpful in identifying and bringing awareness to
Masculinity is seen as a cultural construction throughout history, by which males are assigned certain social roles of their gender. Traditionally, the image of men is clear. Men have to be hard working person, strong father, and disciplined. Historically, the role of man was to provide his wife and family with sustenance. Therefore, masculinity has certain characteristics assigned by our culture.
Males that were interviewed were more likely to praise the stereotypical gender role because it was what made them feel superior. Unlike, females who felt demoralized by the stereotypical gender role. Women were also found to be more alert about gender stratification than men because it affected women
Moreover, the difference between the sexes is less than the difference in sex. In the late 1960's and early 1970 research found that ipeople who were seen as more power, and women were seen as warm or expression. At that time, a man and