Again, by living in a lie, one cannot have a real relationship with them self. In other words, lying to one's self through gender's prerequisites distorts one's true desires for satisfaction from themselves. In their article, "Doing Gender", authors Candace West and Don H. Zimerman discuss gender as a routine in everyday life, elaborating on the perspectives of sex, gender, and sex categories. They describe, "When we view gender as an accomplishment, an achieved property of situated conduct, our attention shifts from matters internal to the individual and focuses on interactional and, ultimately, institutional arenas." Focusing on conforming to gender removes any sense of self; this is because the beliefs adopted from gender were not conceived personally or with consideration to unorthodox beliefs; gender does not consider beliefs outside of a culture and its norms, only giving its participants the knowledge of their culture's gender.
Judith Butler is an American philosopher and feminist who in her book Gender Trouble: Feminism and the subversion of identity, explore the idea whether we are assigned our gender or do we perform it based on what values we have learnt. She seeks to radically reconceptualize, challenge and help alter our ideas on how we understand gender and sex. She starts off by saying that existing feminist movement are limited in how they define gender. She says that this definition is outdated but still reflected by the world’s treatment of gender as a set of binary categories, this means that when we are born we are distinctively placed into one of the two categories i.e. male of female and these categories define how we behave.
Here, Kolhatkar tells of a young woman working in a corporate company looking to climb up the ladder of the business. However, we find that she doesn't receive the same employment and promotional opportunities as many of her male peers, many of whom, she appears to be superior to. She argues this viewpoint once again, when she says, “One former Tesla employee told me that women made up less than ten percent of her working group; at one point, there were actually more men named Matt in the group than there were women” (Kolhatkar). In this quoted text we can infer that women are not given as many opportunities as men within the workplace. Kolhatkar further argues that this could be because when women do attempt to achieve these positions they are often not taken seriously.
Patriarchy is based on a system of power relations which are hierarchical and unequal where men control women’s production, reproduction and sexuality. It imposes masculine and feminine stereotypes in society which reinforce the unequal power relations between men and women. Where the term ‘masculine’ or ‘masculinities’ are not the same as ‘men’. To speak of masculinities is to speak about gender relations. Masculinities concern the position of men in a gender order.
What people perceive as the “norm” for men and women means that there is still a high level of gender inequality, because manly men are influenced to dominate due to their masculinity, and women are expected to submit as they are seen as the weaker gender, and more “feminine” which seems to have negative connotations in society. Especially in working environments, there is still a huge issue of society assuming jobs are gender-specific. For example, mechanics and transport-related fields of work are male-dominated and it is expected that women shouldn’t do these types of jobs because they are “dirty” and include intense “manual labour”. This assumption that women shouldn’t participate in manual labour is so outdated and untrue, there is no reason a woman has any kind of disadvantage to a man when it comes to changing the brake pads of a car or jump starting a battery, so why is it still frowned upon for women to be in such a
This quote shows how oppression is largely universal while demonstrating how uncomfortable topics should not be avoided for fear of said discomfort. The differences that separate us as a people such as race, class, age, ethnicity, religion, and sexuality demonstrate the intermeshed oppressions that both men and women experience uniquely from one another. In “Age, Race, and Sex: Women Redefining Difference”, author Audre says that racism and sexism is a “belief in the superiority of one race/ sex over all others.” We have all been manipulated into thinking how society wants us to think and this mindset will set up a lifetime pursuit of attempting to decolonize this way of thinking that has been instilled in us for so long. It is almost impossible not to recognize the difference when you know it is there. Race only exists if we allow our consciousness and belief to come
Judith Lorber in “The Social Construction of Gender” states that gender is constantly created and re-created out of human interaction, out of social life (276). Defining oneself by gender can be positive but there are also many negative effects of race, ethnicity, income and occupation, geography, religion, age, physical ability, marital and maternal status, and sexual orientation that one has to face. Some believe that women’s profit leads to someone’s loss and even on the job market when women perform the same job as men, the job position are given different names in order to satisfy the individuals separation based on their gender (Lorber 279). Furthermore, while women and men are separated by different labels at the workplace they are
(Hill-Meyer, 2009). Intersectional Feminist Theory is the theory that women experience oppression in various forms and ways. Cultural patterns have become interlocked by the intersectional systems that society has created to continue the multi facets of oppression. This is increased where transitioning which, in itself, is taboo for why would a man want to be a woman. A man has greater rights than a woman and is widely more respected.
The social construction of gender is a theory that is based around the principle that when categorizing an individual in regards to their gender it is primarily determined by people because of factors from the society surrounding them. My definition of the social construction of gender is when sociological factors surrounding an individual are used by and within society to determine and judge their gender characteristics. To answer the question of whether or not gender is a socially constructed idea we need to understand that more research is needed to understand societies impacts on gender as a whole. Without more research the answer is simply yes and no. Society itself is not universal and therefore changes amongst different cultures, races,
For example women working as police officers may repossess police jargon, which was initially attributed to male police officers. For example the word policemen can be now adjusted to women needs, so women who work as police officers could be called policewomen. That grammatical diversification and gender-denotation help avoid discrimination of one gender. On the other hand, McElhinny stated that female police officers cannot fully get through that still men-dominated environment because of biological reason: women are physically weaker than men. However, women still are able to find the space for themselves in male’s work environment and at the same time abolish the view that the workplace is hegemonic and attributed to one gender