Research of over the course 30 years showed that infants are far more competent, social, and responsive and are able to make sense of their environment. Infants are no longer regarded as passive and do not only respond to stimuli (Fantz, 1963). The theory of attachment that was first proposed by John Bowlby (1970) described it as a ‘lasting psychological connectedness between human beings’. He notion that children as young as infant need to develop a secure attachment with their main caregiver. Bowlby’s attachment theories are both psychopathology and normal socio-emotional development.
According to Ainsworth, “attachment refers to an affectional tie that one person forms to another specific individual… attachment is thus discriminating and specific” (Salande & Hawkins, 2016). Without an attachment to an adult, a child has no guidance or direction in life. Therefore, if a child grows up in an unstable family structure, this child is more likely to develop an insecure attachment style in adulthood. Attachment theory confirms the importance of human relationships and their consequences for individual development (Schneider, 1991). As one continues to grow into an adult, it is important to have one to look up to for guidance, no matter what the situation may be.
As its name says it is an insecure type of attachment. In this kind of early attachment the mother is regularly inconsistent in her responses to the babies’ needs. The parents either tend to over react to their infant or fail to help the infant from engaging socially. Appropriate research from Siegel has shown that mothers experiencing depression and other psychological disorders tend to vent it out on the child thus resulting in excess trauma and suffering for the child. Resultantly, these infants develop a confusing situation towards attachment in adulthood.
INTRO Attachment theory is the idea that a child needs to form a close relationship with at least one primary caregivers , this theory provided that attachment is necessary to ensure successful social emotional development of an infant. This is a very crucial stage in occurs in the early infant years this factors relationships with the child and the primary child care giver. In this case the parents and the educator can share the primary role. John Bowlby began researching after he graduated, he believed the attached processed involved the cognitive emotional and social features of attachment. Stating four different style of attachment and how they can all have leading factors as well as long term affects.
Of course, if a parent had a poor connection or attachment to their parent, it does not necessarily mean they will parent the same way. The book encourages that they deal with their problems and wounds to improve their relationships with other. By dealing with the wounds, if can help for a secure attachment with their child, but if the parent doesn't work through their problems, it can cause the same avoidant or unsecure attachment as they
Cultural Differences in Child Attachment and The Universality of Attachment Theory Although attachment theory has been widely accepted, its universality is controversial. Some research support its validity across cultures, some do not. The main critique about the universality of attachment theory is that it is based especially on research that is conducted in Euro-Western populations. This causes suspicions about whether attachment theory is valid across diverse cultures. In this paper, I will present a literature review of four cross-cultural research to examine the universality of attachment theory.
Another key feature of Attachment Theory are internal working models. These working models are created patterns of attachment, usually formed during childhood development, that affect relational attachments in adulthood. These models represent feelings about oneself and others, which contribute to their behavior in their relationships with others. A person’s internal models are usually subconscious, but can change with a cumulative experience, either positive or
Attachment plays a crucial role in the development of young children, and the social skills of children as they grow into adulthood. Looking at attachment from a low socioeconomic stand point reveled many interesting trends within individual’s attachment styles. It was made very clear to me throughout my research on this topic just how vital attachment is for individual development. The attachment theory came about as Mary Ainsworth and Jong Bowlby were researching young motherless children in a hospital after world war 2. They realized what negative effects this motherless environment enacted and wanted to further understand.
Attachment in early life is a fundamental aspect of child development and the establishment of intimate and reciprocal relationships with caregivers. Shaffer & Kipp (2007) define attachment as ‘a close emotional relationship between two persons, characterized by mutual affection and a desire to maintain proximity’. Contrary to the original view of infant attachment as a ‘secondary drive’ of the dependency on caregivers for physiological needs, such as hunger; Bowlby (1969, 1973) proposed that all infants are born with an innate bias to form an attachment to a primary attachment figure to whom they can seek comfort, or a ‘secure base’ during stressful circumstances. It is proposed by Ainsworth (1967) that parental sensitivity is crucial to shaping the security and development of the initial infant-parent attachment relationship, however the phenomenon of attachment requires both infants and caregivers to contribute in the formation of the attachment bond. Ultimately, the quality of attachment in early life shapes both the social and emotional
CHAPTER III THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK This study focused on the Attachment theory in which it is stated how attachment is a deep and enduring emotional bond that connects one person to another across time and space (Ainsworth, 1973; Bowlby, 1969). Attachment theory is a theory that’s connected to psychology, studied first by John Bowlby. It explains the relevance of getting attached to something in an individual’s development. It is observed among children relying on their parents for stability, and that there is an existing need for them due to such reliance. The attachment theory is most commonly observed in the parent- child scenario, as it is in Bowlby’s study which regarded the existence of the attachment as a child needing some sort of person to give them a security and assurance.