Research of over the course 30 years showed that infants are far more competent, social, and responsive and are able to make sense of their environment. Infants are no longer regarded as passive and do not only respond to stimuli (Fantz, 1963). The theory of attachment that was first proposed by John Bowlby (1970) described it as a ‘lasting psychological connectedness between human beings’. He notion that children as young as infant need to develop a secure attachment with their main caregiver. Bowlby’s attachment theories are both psychopathology and normal socio-emotional development.
INTRO Attachment theory is the idea that a child needs to form a close relationship with at least one primary caregivers , this theory provided that attachment is necessary to ensure successful social emotional development of an infant. This is a very crucial stage in occurs in the early infant years this factors relationships with the child and the primary child care giver. In this case the parents and the educator can share the primary role. John Bowlby began researching after he graduated, he believed the attached processed involved the cognitive emotional and social features of attachment. Stating four different style of attachment and how they can all have leading factors as well as long term affects.
According to Ainsworth, “attachment refers to an affectional tie that one person forms to another specific individual… attachment is thus discriminating and specific” (Salande & Hawkins, 2016). Without an attachment to an adult, a child has no guidance or direction in life. Therefore, if a child grows up in an unstable family structure, this child is more likely to develop an insecure attachment style in adulthood. Attachment theory confirms the importance of human relationships and their consequences for individual development (Schneider, 1991). As one continues to grow into an adult, it is important to have one to look up to for guidance, no matter what the situation may be.
As its name says it is an insecure type of attachment. In this kind of early attachment the mother is regularly inconsistent in her responses to the babies’ needs. The parents either tend to over react to their infant or fail to help the infant from engaging socially. Appropriate research from Siegel has shown that mothers experiencing depression and other psychological disorders tend to vent it out on the child thus resulting in excess trauma and suffering for the child. Resultantly, these infants develop a confusing situation towards attachment in adulthood.
They realized what negative effects this motherless environment enacted and wanted to further understand. Bretherton stated in his article “the origins of attachment theory” “To grow up mentally healthy the infant and young child should experience a warm intimate and continuous relationship with his mother (or permanent mother
Psychology Assignment. Whilst the process of attachment in early life may appear straightforward, there is however, a number of theories that can explain how this can vary. The development and importance of attachment in early life is well portrayed in psychological theory and in psychological research. The definition of attachment according to Bowlby (1982) (Psychological Science by Michael Gazzaniga Page 366) is that "attachment is a strong, emotional connection that persists over time and across circumstances". In order for a human being to have a successful social life in later years, it is of the utmost importance that emotional bonds act as building blocks for development.
(Carpenter and Huffman, 2013 p.278) In her studies of infants, she placed the mother in a room with the child (securely attached), then introduced a stranger to the child(anxious/ambivalent), then the mother would leave the room leaving the stranger with the child(anxious/avoidant), then mother would return (disorganized/disoriented attachment). Observations of the child's reactions towards the mother and stranger in each of these segments were analyzed. From this, Ainsworth was able to conclude the bonding the child had toward their mother. The more attached the child, the more they responded to the mother coming and going, either by clinging, crying or following. This research gives to wonder, are we doing harm when sending our young children to the sitter or school expecting them to act like they don't care when we leave?
Parents of children who are diagnosed with either Attention Deficient Hyperactivity Disorder, ADHD or Autism Spectrum Disorder, ASD tend to parent using either authoritarian or permissive parenting styles. Parents are more likely to become stressed due to raising a child with either ADHD or ASD. The goal was to figure out the links between parenting styles, parenting stress, and a child executive functioning. Through their findings they discovered parents of children with ADHD had more stress than parents of children with ASD, but when lower executive functioning occurred in those with ASD the results switched. However, both parents of ADHD and ASD children were more likely to be of permissive or authoritarian parenting
Attachment in early life is a fundamental aspect of child development and the establishment of intimate and reciprocal relationships with caregivers. Shaffer & Kipp (2007) define attachment as ‘a close emotional relationship between two persons, characterized by mutual affection and a desire to maintain proximity’. Contrary to the original view of infant attachment as a ‘secondary drive’ of the dependency on caregivers for physiological needs, such as hunger; Bowlby (1969, 1973) proposed that all infants are born with an innate bias to form an attachment to a primary attachment figure to whom they can seek comfort, or a ‘secure base’ during stressful circumstances. It is proposed by Ainsworth (1967) that parental sensitivity is crucial to shaping the security and development of the initial infant-parent attachment relationship, however the phenomenon of attachment requires both infants and caregivers to contribute in the formation of the attachment bond. Ultimately, the quality of attachment in early life shapes both the social and emotional
The attachment theory is most commonly observed in the parent- child scenario, as it is in Bowlby’s study which regarded the existence of the attachment as a child needing some sort of person to give them a security and assurance. It is explained that with lack thereof, the individual would find it difficult to explore horizons because there is that part of their development, needed to be fulfilled with such assurance, that wasn’t met during childhood, thus such insecurities may surface. Further, it is pointed out that the relationship established between the parent and the child has an impact in the child’s behavioral and emotional self-regulation. It relies heavily on the level in which the parents are able to meet the child’s needs for someone to stand as a stronghold of confidence and to provide them the feeling of safety. Attachment theory also explains levels in a child’s ability to place recall or differentiate