The literature review clearly has shown that there is a phenomenon called School to Prison, Schoolhouse to Jailhouse, or Public Education to Prison Pipeline. Therefore, Jeremy Thompson (2016) says, “Zero-tolerance policies in schools result in high suspension rates and expulsion rates among students in general, but disproportionately affect minority students, especially African-Americans because students who have been suspended or expelled are more likely than not to end up in the Criminal Justice
Studies have shown that students who have been suspended are three times more likely to dropout than a student who has never been suspended. A 2011 study conducted in Texas showed that students who have been suspended or expelled at least once during middle or high school averaged for such disciplinary actions during their academic careers. Fourteen percent of those students have been suspended 11 times or more. The article “Why Do We Suspend Misbehaving Students.” written by Brian Palmer states that students who have been suspended at least once in their academic career are three times more likely to drop out. In recent years, while Baltimore city schools have dramatically reduced suspensions, the dropout rate has been cut almost in half.
“In 2010 there was 41 percent and today, the out of wedlock childbirth in the Black community sits at an astonishing 72 percent.” (YourBlackWorld). This have shown that the African American families are decreasing with a large amount from families due to parents not being
Racial profiling is big in our school systems, the biggest case of racial profiling is the case of Brown vs Board of Education of Topeka, and the case declared state laws establishing separate public schools for white and black students to become unconstitutional. Nearly 60 years later the education system still continues to single out Black Americans. The average student suspension rate is 11% however if that student is Black then the rate jumps to 24%. Studies have shown that students that are more problematic are black students, but when it comes to consequences the black students are either kicked out of school or put into a room. In most cases, those students are just shipped to alternative school because of suspension rate.
The discipline for kids in public normally follows the same standard: Warning,Talk in hall,and Detention/suspension . what races are suspended most or in detention most? The answer is minorities such as black students who suffer from the social stereotypes of a standard black student. As if they’re destined to be troublemakers “Gotta keep an eye on that kid” This all goes back to implicit bias: referring to the attitudes or stereotypes that affect our attitudes towards different things,places,or people. When you hear about illegal immigrants what race do you picture?
However, what they fail to see is that it’s a social fabrication. In America, there’s a singularity where some individuals have advantages because of their skin color, while unfortunately others are victimized for the equivalent reason. The deep-rooted controversy of inequality and prejudice has insinuated the social fabric in our American society and government, as African Americans still experience discrimination on all levels until today, but society seems to be blind to that fact. As mentioned in the article “Redesigning Racial Caste in America via Mass Incarceration” written by Gilda Graff, “The extent of America’s continuing blindness to the New Jim Crow can be seen in the presidential nominee Obama’s 2008 Father’s Day address about missing black fathers, a message delivered many times by black ministers as well as by Bill Cosby, Sidney Poitier, and Louis Farrakhan” (126). As an example Kimberly Houzah, a twenty-seven-year-old woman was kicked out of a Victoria Secret store at the Quintard Mall in Oxford, Alabama.
Institutionalized discrimination refers to the unfair, indirect treatment of certain members within a group. Usually, the bias targets specific, easily stereotyped and generalize attributes, such as race, gender, nationality, sexual orientation, and age. Although the United State law forbids direct discrimination and it’s illegal, countless academics, activists, and advocacy organizations assert that as far as they are concerned, indirect discrimination is still persistent and ongoing in the vast majority of our social institutions and as well in our daily social practices. Such institutionalized discrimination includes laws and decisions that reflect racism, for example, the 1896 case between Plessey vs. Ferguson. The case that was ruled in favor of the “separate but equal" public facilities between African Americans and non-African Americans by the U.S. Supreme Court, however, the ruling was rescinded by the Brown vs. Board of Education Supreme Court decision in 1954.
Racial preferences in the college admission process should be
Previous literature explores the history of institutionalized racism and cultural hegemony in the United States and academic institutions. Additionally, the literature delineates the ramifications racism and discrimination have on minority students and students of color in regards to their social, psychological, and physical health. Finally, the literature explicates the obligations universities have as agents of change, particularly in an increasingly multicultural America, where racial backlash and cultural resentment continue to grow more frequent. The existing racism and cultural hegemony taking place on today’s university campuses are a symptom of a much larger structural and institutional history of American racism, segregation and
Data obtained in 2002 from the U.S. Department of Education’s Office for Civil Rights (OCR) show that minorities including African American, Hispanic and American Indian students are severely underrepresented in GATE programs, and the underrepresentation is always greater than 40 percent (Ford, Grantham & Whiting, 2008). Statistically, African American students are overly represented in Special Education programs in part due to the lack of accurate identification. The publication of A Nation at Risk reported alarming data that indicated that as much as 20 percent of the students that dropped out of school were in fact gifted and not identified (as cited by Ford, 1992).
My topic is that “students who attend underprivileged high schools face considerably more obstacles when trying to be accepted into Ivy league colleges.” I’m going to focus on the obstacles that minority students who attend underprivileged schools in lower class or poor communities face when trying to be accepted into colleges, especially Ivy league colleges. I’m going to focus on obstacles some of which include racism, bullying, poverty, attending schools with fewer resources, and living in lower class areas. I’m going to write about how these obstacles hinder and affect students in their academics, and therefore their likelihood of being accepted into colleges. I am writing about this topic because I find it interesting and want to learn
(Michelle Alexander, 2010:58) The three strikes law targeted the communities affluent with minority groups. At the turn of the 21st century the majority that entered the prison system were African Americans and Latinos. (Michelle Alexander, 2010) The reason behind mass incarceration was due to the crack down on the deteriorating communities where the majority of minorities lived. Authors Scott Ehlers, Vincent Schiraldi and Jason Ziedenberg of Still Striking Out: Ten Years of California’s Three Strikes (2004) report that African Americans in prison because of the three strike law is higher per every 100,000 African American than Whites and Latinos in California. (U.S. Census Bureau
1. As I engaged in watching the video "Young, Black and Male in New Orleans” several social issues was addressed. First, one of the issues is the significant gap in poverty among minorities and whites, specifically African Americans. African American is two to three times more likely to be poor then white children. Furthermore, black children are more than seven times more likely to spend more than half of their childhood years in poverty.
When we say prejudice it is most commonly known to be relating to race. In my experiences at school, there were cases of prejudice based on academic performance. Whenever a teacher would assign a group assignment students with higher averages would join together leaving those with lower averages to group with each other. This usually negatively affects many friendships since one may care more about their marks than their friends. This affected my relationships with my peers that I always worked with positively, but the relationship with those who I never or rarely worked with did not go so well.