Therefore, it is believed that only actions derived from duty have moral values, and those descended from inclination should not be considered worth morally in any case. This theory differs considerably from Aristotle’s beliefs in Nichomachean Ethics when he argues that taking the right action by inclination is a proof of a moral character. Moreover, duty is necessary to create universal rules. One of these rules states that we should act upon pure intentions because moral rules cannot be excused, hence lying is always wrong. Unfortunately, there is an issue with pure reasoning- every experience is different.
Kant was an 18th century philosopher who examined the roots of philosophy and formed the deontological moral duty theory. This theory assesses the moral integrity of an action, based on its motive, irrespective of its consequence; hence asserting that an action can only be good if, and only if, its maxim is duty to the moral law. The basic structure of Kant 's construction of the moral law is the categorical imperative, which explains that we have a duty to act in the same way every time we are faced with an ethical decision. You do the right thing simply because it is the right thing to do. According to Kant only the categorical imperative provides an enlightened premise for making decisions without relying on any other order i.e.
(ii) (ii) Does my action respect the goals of human beings rather than merely using them for my own purposes? Again, if the answer is no, then we must not perform the action. Principles of Kant’s Theory Kant’s theory was actually based on the following five points: • Moral view of Kant is Categorical Imperative. • Universitality: No moral statement can be valid if it cannot be universal. • Intrinsic Values: Every human is an end in itself and not a mean to some other end.
In his theory of moral Kant puts aside emotions and disregards human body. According to Kant rationality is the basic need of human being. Kantianism is a part of deontological ethics and is always in contrast of utilitarianism, which emphasizes the consequences. In Kant’s perspective actions are approved or disapproved in and by themselves. Peoples’ rights should never be violated, even if it brings good consequences.
The AHA’s discussion of dialogue and truth connect to the ethical theory of Kantianism. Kantianism is a form of Deontology that provides us with the Universal Law Formula and the Humanity as an End in Itself Formula. The Universal Law Formula says that we should treat others in the way that we expect others to treat us. The Humanity as an End in Itself Formula explains that humans should never be used as a means to an end or we should simply respect humans. Through these formulas come the idea of imperfect and perfect duties.
The duty in this situation is to be able to safe everyone, but is it morally right to run over one and save the rest? I believe that Kant in this situation will try to save the first one and try to possibly help the rest. The duty is the main concept in this theory, our emotions have no choice in this situation, no matter if we choose right
8) Kant states that if Gods doesn’t exist, then the universe is incomplete immoral, due to that virtue will be unrewarded and wickedness will not be punished. 9) Hobbes argues that ethics is a result from when people come to realize what they must do to live as best as they are able to. 10) Rachels continues to state that a supportive society can only exist if we come to adopt certain aspects
Deontological ethical theory, is frequently identified with Immanuel Kant, as he believed from his theory of duty, that If something is wrong then it is always wrong. "Deontological ethical theory is an ethical theory that evaluates behavior in terms of adherence to duty or obligation, regardless of consequences" (Mitchell, 2015, p.455).Deontology considers that moral actions are equivalent to abiding by the rules.Basically this assists us in understanding which behaviors are acceptable and which are prohibited. "Deontological theory holds that human beings have a certain duty of action, and doing the right ethical thing means doing our human duty in a given situation" (South University, 2016,week 5). The main objective of deontology is to establish balanced rules in addition to acting morally which essentially is ones
Yet drawing parallels between the two positions is far from impossible, despite Sartre’s strong opposition to Kantian moral theory. Kant’s moral philosophy stands on the notion of good will, an intrinsic good which is perceived to be so without qualification, independent of any external factors. Thus, he dismisses other values that could be taken as good in themselves, such as happiness, honesty, courage, trust etc. as they have worth only under specific conditions, whereas in others they could be transposed into bad acts. For example, trust is necessary for one to be able to manipulate others, one must have courage to be able to
Moral nihilism which is also called ethical nihilism is a myth way of saying that nothing in the world is based on something that is specifically right or definitely wrong. Basically speaking, a moral nihilist would infer from a murder as for any particular excuse, that the problem is not necessarily wrong or inherently the correct way to act as each individual sees morality in different points of views. It is a distinct from moral relativism, allowing humans relating similar opinions to one another making something correct/incorrect in a non-objective sense, but does not have any proof whatsoever that a statement is statically from truth-values. Moral relativism defers from moral nihilism. It is based on individuals relating similar standards