Therefore, it is believed that only actions derived from duty have moral values, and those descended from inclination should not be considered worth morally in any case. This theory differs considerably from Aristotle’s beliefs in Nichomachean Ethics when he argues that taking the right action by inclination is a proof of a moral character. Moreover, duty is necessary to create universal rules. One of these rules states that we should act upon pure intentions because moral rules cannot be excused, hence lying is always wrong. Unfortunately, there is an issue with pure reasoning- every experience is different.
Kant was an 18th century philosopher who examined the roots of philosophy and formed the deontological moral duty theory. This theory assesses the moral integrity of an action, based on its motive, irrespective of its consequence; hence asserting that an action can only be good if, and only if, its maxim is duty to the moral law. The basic structure of Kant 's construction of the moral law is the categorical imperative, which explains that we have a duty to act in the same way every time we are faced with an ethical decision. You do the right thing simply because it is the right thing to do. According to Kant only the categorical imperative provides an enlightened premise for making decisions without relying on any other order i.e. only the
Again, if the answer is no, then we must not perform the action. Principles of Kant’s Theory Kant’s theory was actually based on the following five points: • Moral view of Kant is Categorical Imperative.
According to Kant rationality is the basic need of human being. Kantianism is a part of deontological ethics and is always in contrast of utilitarianism, which emphasizes the consequences. In Kant’s perspective actions are approved or disapproved in and by themselves. Peoples’ rights should never be violated, even if it brings good consequences. Kant discovers hidden principles that govern our beliefs.
The AHA’s discussion of dialogue and truth connect to the ethical theory of Kantianism. Kantianism is a form of Deontology that provides us with the Universal Law Formula and the Humanity as an End in Itself Formula. The Universal Law Formula says that we should treat others in the way that we expect others to treat us. The Humanity as an End in Itself Formula explains that humans should never be used as a means to an end or we should simply respect humans. Through these formulas come the idea of imperfect and perfect duties.
5) Rachels talks about the Divine Command Theory, which is an action is morally correct if it is directed by God. 6) Socrates’ argues against the Divine Command Theory also he concludes that right or wrong of one’s actions cannot be understood in terms of their compliance to divine commands. 8) Kant states that if Gods doesn’t exist, then the universe is incomplete immoral, due to that virtue will be unrewarded and wickedness will not be punished. 9)
Deontological ethical theory, is frequently identified with Immanuel Kant, as he believed from his theory of duty, that If something is wrong then it is always wrong. " Deontological ethical theory is an ethical theory that evaluates behavior in terms of adherence to duty or obligation, regardless of consequences" (Mitchell, 2015, p.455).Deontology considers that moral actions are equivalent to abiding by the rules. Basically this assists us in understanding which behaviors are acceptable and which are prohibited. "Deontological theory holds that human beings have a certain duty of action, and doing the right ethical thing means doing our human duty in a given situation" (South University, 2016,week 5).
Kant’s moral philosophy stands on the notion of good will, an intrinsic good which is perceived to be so without qualification, independent of any external factors. Thus, he dismisses other values that could be taken as good in themselves, such as happiness, honesty, courage, trust etc. as they have worth only under specific conditions, whereas in others they could be transposed into bad acts. For example, trust is necessary for one to be able to manipulate others, one must have courage to be able to
Moral nihilism which is also called ethical nihilism is a myth way of saying that nothing in the world is based on something that is specifically right or definitely wrong. Basically speaking, a moral nihilist would infer from a murder as for any particular excuse, that the problem is not necessarily wrong or inherently the correct way to act as each individual sees morality in different points of views. It is a distinct from moral relativism, allowing humans relating similar opinions to one another making something correct/incorrect in a non-objective sense, but does not have any proof whatsoever that a statement is statically from truth-values. Moral relativism defers from moral nihilism. It is based on individuals relating similar standards
Rong Rong (Esther) Professor John Q. Davis Eng 1A 11 Nov 2015 Fact and Emotion What is the purpose of rhetoric? A host of sophists and scholars have studied rhetoric since the ancient times. Aristotle, one of the greatest philosophers in history, holds the view that a persuasive speech should stick to the facts rather than evoking audience’s emotions.