As said by Christopher Bond, “Remember, we all know the end of the story of World War II and the Cold War. But day by day, living in fear of the Nazis and then in fear of the Soviets, the outcome was by no means certain.” Today everyone knows that the Nazis were defeated in 1945 and the Iron Curtain, along with the Soviets, eventually fell around 1991. But in 1939 after Germany invaded Poland, or when the alliance between the Soviet Union and the United States was beginning to fall apart the peace and safety of the United States was not always guaranteed. Both Roosevelt’s “Four Freedoms’ speech and Kennedy’s inaugural address talk about how the peace and freedom of the United States is being threatened. However in Roosevelt’s speech he wanted the people to agree to end the policy of neutrality and help our allies.
All of these factors combined to create an fearful and dreadful atmosphere, which provided a ripe environment for the rise of committed anti communist, Joseph McCarthy, who for many Americans was “the most enduring symbol of this ‘Red Scare’”(“Joseph R.”). “McCarthy 's power to stir fears of creeping Communism was not entirely based on illusion, of course; the paranoid, real or pretended, always secretes its pearl around a grain of fact”, he spent almost five years trying in vain to expose communists and other “loyalty risks” in the U.S. government, suggestion of disloyalty was enough to convince many Americans of the traitors and spies in their government. (“Joseph R.”). Senator Joseph McCarthy rose to national
This is anti-Reaganism” (Moore, Alan, in Groth, Gary, and Fiore, Robert, 1988. The New Comics: 100).” (Masserano 2009) This research text entitled, The Judge of All The Earth: Allegory and Politics in Alan Moore’s “Watchmen”, analysis 's Moore’s critique of the politics that governed the atomic age and the effects that it had on the American people as a whole. The seminal line offered up in the second issue of the series by the character of Night Owl, in which the riotous seventies Vietnam protests are the backdrop, outlines how the effects of cold war paranoia left the American populous in relation to the rise of the communist agenda. Night Owl stating, “The country is disintegrating. What happened to America?
Arthur Miller constructs his play upon the famous Salem witch trails. Miller's Crucible was written in the early 1950s. Miller wrote his drama during the brief reign of the American senator Joseph McCarthy whose bitter criticized anti- communism sparkled the need for the United States to be a dramatic anti- communist society during the early tense years of the cold war. By orders from McCarthy himself, committees of the Congress commenced highly controversial investigations against communists in the U.S similar to the alleged Salem witches situation. Convict communists were ordered to confess their crime and name others to avoid the retribution.
The main idea behind Arthur Miller’s fictional play, The Crucible, is that no matter the circumstances, if someone was accused of witchcraft, they were automatically considered guilty no matter how high up in social class ranking they were even if there was no sign of any factual proof or evidence. There are many parallels between situations in the play and what was happening at home in the United States throughout the Red Scare in the 1950s and 1960s. At the same time the play was first written, citizens in the United States were being charged with the offense of being communists or spies for the Soviet Union during the Cold War, which was considered one of the most serious, if not biggest crimes back then. Along with that and situations in
Marshall Aid contributed to the deteriorating relations between the two super powers after 1945. The USSR questioned American motives to provide aid to European countries and declared it as expansionist. In Truman’s address to the joint session of Congress 1947 he stated that he “believe(d) that it must be the policy of the United States to support free peoples who are resisting” he then follows on to say “The peoples of a number of countries of the world have recently had totalitarian regimes forced upon them… the coercion and intimidation, in violation of the Yalta agreement in Poland, Rumania and Bulgaria” . Mentioning the new soviet satellite states was directly attacking the Soviet Union and Stalin. In this speech Truman is trying to sell the Truman Doctrine to Congress emphasising the need to adopt a policy of containment, in order to address a significant issue at the time – the fear of communism.
Although the Soviets imposed a Stalin type of regime in Hungary during the beginning of the Soviet occupation, things continued to get worse after the failed election of the communist party in Hungary (Country Report, 2010). For example Vyachslev Molatav, a diplomat for the Soviet Union, commanded Matyas Rakosi, the leader of the Communist Party in Hungary, to use tougher actions against the Hungarian citizens in order to make a more pronounced class struggle (Wettig, 2008). The electoral loss of the Communist Party in the 1945 Hungarian elections illustrated the reality that the Central European Communists parties were weak; thus the Soviet Union felt that it was necessary to apply harsh measures onto the Hungarian people in order to ensure the survival of a communist government (Naimark, 1995). Although the Soviets believed that these measures would enforce communism as a way of life over the Hungarian population, this ended up driving the Hungarians to revolt in
Response to Senator McCarthy’s “Enemies From Within Speech” With anti-communism being the dominant political issue during the Cold War, hysteria and paranoia spread throughout the minds of Americans. The “Enemies From Within Speech” delivered at Wheeling, West Virginia in 1950 by Senator Joseph McCarthy focused on worsening that national fear. Senator McCarthy used ethos, metaphor, and hyperbole to create the notion of disloyalty within the federal government. In order to persuade the American public in a convincing way, Senator McCarthy appeals to their ethics. He indirectly inserts an Abraham Lincoln quote in his speech and refers to him as “one of our outstanding historical figures.” McCarthy continues to mention Lincoln, stating that he would have been satisfied with the reaction by Americans to communist infiltration of the
This censorship controlled what the American public read, watched, and heard, which in turn limited the information available to the public. Ray Bradbury, an author of this era, wrote one of his most famous books, Fahrenheit 451, inspired by the new technology and government corruption in the 1950s. Through Bradbury’s use of effective character development and symbolism, he is able to illustrate the problems of government censorship and technology in his futuristic dystopia in his novel Fahrenheit 451. Fahrenheit 451 is separated into three different parts that represent the changes Guy Montag, a fireman whose job is to burn books banned by the government, undergoes. Each part contains a new character that sparks this transformation the reader sees in Montag.
Similar to the plot of the play, Hansberry’s father bought a home in a Caucasian neighborhood and after the family settled into their new home, a brick was thrown through the window almost hitting Hansberry (Plays and Playwrights, 1540). The law during this time segregated neighborhoods, and the family takes it upon themselves to reform the social system. Through reform and support from the National Association for the Advancement of the Colored People, the Hansberry family was allowed to continue living in their desired home. Segregated communities are a commonplace in the play. Within Marxist theory, stable societies develop sites of
Futhermore, the article states, "African American parents in South Carolina wanted their children to have the same services and schools with the same quality as the white children... In 1947, DeLaine and the parents ' group sued Clarendon County School District #22 and asked for a bus for black students. The court dismissed the case based on a technicality, but the parents did not give up." Here the author is saying that African Americans parents wanted their children to have more of a service and school quality as the whites did, so that they know their children 's matter. EdLaine was a Liberty Hill Elementary School teacher, who had worked with the parents and the (NAACP).
Arthur Miller wrote The Crucible in 1953. He wrote this because he had a story to tell, a story about modern issues which is individual freedom versus conformity. During the 1950s there was a period of political dispute in America, many were suspected of being communist and were put under investigation which was led by senator Joseph McCarthy, even though the play was dated back to 1693 there was a parallel between the Salem Witch Hunts which was described in the play and the general political atmosphere in the 1950s. Arthur Miller was summoned by the “House of committee” on Un-American activities, he was accused of being a communist, and he also refused to name others as a communist, he was sentenced to thirty days in jail. In the overture
9. Pat McCarran Senator Pat McCarran of Nevada was a member of the overzealously anti-Communist group of Senators who collaborated with and supported Joseph McCarthy. Unlike McCarthy, however, McCarran was less focused on demagoguery to promote his “brand” and more focused on putting McCarthy’s words into concrete legislation. McCarran’s magnum opus in this effort was the Internal Security Act of 1950. The law ordered all Communist organizations to register with the Attorney General, and created a board to investigate people suspected of sympathy with Communism.
Sam Robert’s article, “A Decade of Fear” explains how McCarthyism turned Americans against each other after World War 2. In the first place he lied about communists being in the U.S. senate. As stated in Sam Robert’s article, “News of McCarthy’s accusations against the state dept. of president Harry Truman sent shock waves across the nation.” McCarty’s statements made him look like a gallant anticommunist and gave him power. As a matter of fact, he was considered more of a witch hunter.
In 1881 he would be the first leader of the Tuskegee Institute in Alabama. He became very popular with black politics and aided President Roosevelt and President Taft in making some very important decisions. He worked with white Philanthropists so they would donated money to build schools for people in the south so they were allowed to become educated at suitable schools.In 1895 Washington spoke at the Atlanta Address. Although, DuBois would call it the Atlanta Compromise because he believed Washington was negotiating with whites on how blacks treatment differed from whites. He believed we shouldn 't fight about the Jim Crow laws keep our focus on more important things education.