Unmaking War, Remaking Men by Kathleen Barry
Submitted by: ARPIT SAGAR (OT Code-B51)
Kathleen Barry is a feminist activist and a sociologist. Her first book launched an international movement against human trafficking. In this book namely Unmaking War Remaking Men; she has examined the experiences of the soldiers during their training and combat as well as that of their victims using the concept of empathy. She explains how the lives of these men are made expendable for combat. She also reveals about the various aspects of military training which drives these soldiers into the state of war. These soldiers are trained to kill without even thinking once, due to which they themselves suffer from both trauma and loss of their own souls. She …show more content…
Bush, Ariel Sharon and Osama bin Laden to show how war is planned which leads to a huge destruction of human life. Kathleen Barry asks about the process of unmaking war by analysing the demilitarized state of Costa Rica. She compares its peace claims with its extremely high rate of violence against women.
In the last chapter she has focussed on the aspect of Remaking men, Reknowing Ourselves. According to her the only way to end war is unmaking masculinity. She further adds that this kind of change is already in process through the men who oppose and say no to combat and transform their lives into a new kind of humanity.
But the work of Kathleen Barry also has some shortcomings like:
- In reality it is very difficult to separate combat ethic from the military’s time immemorial emphasis on face-to-face killing. It might have a strong influence on future of the military culture.
- Military training needs to be intense. But proper care needs to be taken that it should not be devoid of empathy. A certain preconditioning may soften up and facilitate some aspects of military training. The main objective of military is total compliance in service towards the mission. It is less concerned with the psychology of the soldiers. The main job of soldiers as per the Marine Corps is an absolute willingness and obedience to follow all …show more content…
presidents have repeatedly led the country into many unnecessary wars to test and prove their core masculinity is highly exaggerated. In her treatment of psychopathic leadership, she identifies machismo as the primary trait of leaders. But there have been instances where even women leaders have been instrumental in leading their country to war.
- She also cites masculine characteristics and irrational thinking as the primary reasons behind U.S. interventions all around the globe. But this cannot be the only reason for these wars. In some aspects the military can be said to be an end in itself but the author has failed to address its primary role as servant to the ruling interests.
Though the book has some lacunas but it cannot be denied that Kathleen Barry has done a pioneering work on the concept of empathy which is the most important trait in all human beings. It also needs to be inculcated in the soldiers on the battlefield also so that they can effectively differentiate between right and wrong. The book provides a fresh and broad reaching critique of militarised masculinity. Along with the problems, she has even emphasised on the solutions. For instance, she suggests that killing by a soldier should be thought as the last resort. He should initially focus on negotiation rather than face-to-face killing. This can be imbibed in the training through a proper military training. Such issues if taken seriously can lead to the formation of a peaceful
In Robert Jensen’s article “The High Cost of Manliness”, he states that the idea of masculinity is a bad thing and they should get rid of it. This article debates on the common stereotypes of men, as he states: “That dominant conception of masculinity in U.S. Culture is easily summarized: Men are assumed to be naturally competitive and aggressive, and being a real man is therefore marked by the struggle for control, conquest, and domination” (par. 4). Nonetheless, there are some traits that men and woman share, such as, caring, compassion, and tenderness. These traits often depend on the situation, since a man cannot always be this way, whereas, a woman is often expected to have these traits.
In war, there is a winning side and a losing side, but both suffer casualties. Afflictions are not always dealt in death and physical pain, but also emotional damage. In Tim O’Brien’s The Things They Carried, he emphasizes war’s capabilities to change people. When Mary Anne, a sweet, innocent, all-American girl, arrives in Vietnam to be with her soldier boyfriend, change is inevitable, and she will eventually lose her naiveté. O’Brien utilizes personification, jarring imagery, hyperbole, and pathos to convey that war shatters all innocence, no matter how hard one may try to avoid the change.
In Phil Klay’s Redeployment, the war in Iraq is described as an intense masculine experience. Through the pages, the presence of women is marginal, if there is any woman in the short stories, and the reader enters in a realm of men and, more important, of what it means to be a real man. The assumption of war as a complete masculine experience might seem pretty obvious; however, Phil Klay is able to offer a crude and clear depiction of it. The author tells twelve different short stories of men who have only one thing in common: the experience of the Iraq War. But this is not simply a book about the war, but also about the consequences that this terrible experience has on the soldiers.
Things I Carry The things I carry to school are to ease my job everyday. I carry my backpack so it could hold all my other materials which I need to carry. I carry extra pencils in case of loss of my actual pencil. One day in January, my mechanical pencil ran out of lead during a math test, and I had to waste five minutes to get another pencil.
Masculinity is a socially constructed characteristic of being a male. According to Shepler in Youthscapes, “children are moving from a blunt kind of power to a power legitimated through international structures; one them to take on certain identities”(pg 131). In the case of the child soldiers in Sierra Leone they take on certain identities in order legitimize their masculine power. in ALWG Ishmael Baeh describes how the war processually constructed his masculinity. The war took everything from him and other children which fueled their motivation to join arms.
A Rumor of War by Philip Caputo shows the hard work and difficult tasks the men had to go through to prove themselves and protect their country. The war will change the men’s attitudes and the way they do everything. Men made sacrifices in the Vietnam War most people would never make in a lifetime, they will not just sacrifice but push themselves physically harder than most any other men. The men will also emotionally change from constantly watching other men die, or killing other men. The mens first kill was always the hardest for them, mentally they had so many thoughts of the other mans close ones back home and what they would go through and how it would be all their fault.
The overall goal of genocidal rape is to inﬂict punishment on the male enemy by creating psychological and physical harm for women and girls (Sharlach 2000 as cited in Matusitz, 2017, p. 836). Consequently, war rape as genocidal rape redefines the sexually assaulted woman’s body as a “site of ethnic clashes” (Kirk & Taylor, 2006, p. 139) and reframes the targeted population as sub-human. In turn, the ethnic cleansing strategy represents “an enactment of ethnic superiority” (Mullins, 2009, p. 732). The purpose of this paper is to provide a critical analysis of genocidal rape.
Throughout the ages, wars have wreaked havoc and caused great destruction that lead to the loss of millions of lives. However, wars also have an immensely destructive effect on the individual soldier. In the novel All Quiet on the Western Front written by Erich Maria Remarque, one is able to see exactly to what extent soldiers suffered during World War 1 as well as the effect that war had on them. In this essay I will explain the effect that war has on young soldiers by referring to the loss of innocence of young soldiers, the disillusionment of the soldiers and the debasement of soldiers to animalistic men. Many soldiers entered World War 1 as innocent young boys, but as they experienced the full effect of the war they consequently lost their innocence.
From the reverberation of virtue and righteousness to the toils and tribulations of oppression and persecution, humanity gazes upon its hysteria and delirium and stands idly by as the world disintegrates upon their tattered feet. We have, as humans, have desensitized ourselves from the hysteria and value the triumph and victory that war entails. War and combat, whose ideologies persist with the very fabric of time itself and with this persistence is the resurgence and modification of weaponry. To formulate our concepts of war, we associate our ideas with machine guns, gas masks, and bombs, however, looming in the shadows of our history are these silent agents of destruction: human trafficking, sterilization, and rape. Rape: “The crime of using force or the threat of force to compel a person to submit to sexual intercourse.”
Over all, this story allows us to observe changes within the mentalities of army officers. First, the trauma of living in a war zone can add a significant amount of intangible weight into someone’s life. In “The Things They Carried,” we discover that Cross’s men “carried all the emotional baggage of men who might die (443).” Given that the majority of humans have experienced some form of trauma, we can understand how some men were driven to suicide and others into
Can an antiquated lens provide an adequate examination and understanding of modern warfare? The theories of Carl von Clausewitz retain remarkable contemporary merit and relevance in explaining the critical elements affecting warfare in the modern era. Carl von Clausewitz’s theories of war endeavor to be comprehendible, comprehensive, and strategic. Clausewitz contends that the conduct of war itself is without doubt very difficult. But the difficulty is not that erudition and great genius are necessary to understand the basic principles of warfare.1 Clausewitz 's 1812 essay, the Principles of War, offers military commanders, with little campaign experience, a comprehendible, comprehensive, and strategic model for attaining victory in battle.
In Tim O’brien’s book, The Things They Carried, we see the detrimental causes and effects of the enforced stereotype of male masculinity. Tim uses many factors including the setting, characters, symbolism and other components like these to conveys his feelings and emotions. Many of those feelings and emotions derive from his personal experience in the war. The Things They Carried accurately shows what it is to struggle with the stereotypical image of a man in how it presents itself in everyday life along with its adverse and restricting effects.
In chapter nine of Tim O 'Brien 's The Things They Carried, O’Brien tells a second-hand story of a girl, Mary Anne, who is called over to Vietnam by her boyfriend. She transitions from an effervescent, little girl into a confident, passionate-for-war woman who does things her former-self could not even fathom, like going out on ambushes and clipping arteries. Although Mary Anne only appears in one chapter, she proves to be a crucial character in the novel. She symbolizes how war changes people. Every soldier is innocent at first, then changes into someone who is unrecognizable, someone who is desensitized to bloodshed, gore, and murder.
a) Prevention: This pillar focuses on ‘prevention of conflict and all forms of violence against women and girls in conflict and post-conflict situations’ (Women 2013). However, much to the dismay of the interests of women, it continues to be an aspect that has received the least possible attention. It aims at incorporating gender considerations into the analysis of conflict situations and involving women and their peculiar needs in the prevention of conflict or even in the process of disarmament. It also takes into account measures to ensure equitable response to violence against women by fighting for perpetrators of conflict-related sexual violence. Other strategies aimed at preventing Gender Based Violence include posing questions at the discriminatory gender norms, attitudes and behaviors that have been harbored by our societies for ages and engaging with men and boys.