Reconstruction was a period after the Civil War, which Northern leaders created plans to reestablish the south and for southern states to rejoin the Union. Presidential reconstruction was more lenient to the south. However, Congressional reconstruction wanted to punish the south for starting the war and for treating African American inequality. They put the South under military control. And allowed African Americans the right to vote, yet, denied the southern political leaders the right to vote. In addition, congressional reconstruction demands the south to agree to follow the 13th, 14th, and 15th amendments of the constitution, before joining the Union. William Dunning and Eric Foner’s are two historians who interpreted the causes of congressional …show more content…
According to the passage, “as black codes were concerned, it was pointed out that they could not be alleged as evidences of a tendency to restore slavery or introduce peonage.” This is saying that black codes were totally different from slavery and could not be used for evidence that the south was bringing back slavery. Since President Johnson’s presidential reconstruction was so lenient to the south and gave the white southerner to determining whether to abolish slavery or not. As a result, it led to white southerners passing the black codes, which restricted African American’s freedom. In another word, it is same as slavery, just in different word phrase. Dunning’s passage also mentioned that the southerners felt that Congress gave African American the rights to vote was just a way to gain support and wants the new government in the south to support the Republican Party. As it stated in the passage, “ the southerners felt that the policy of Congress had no real cause save the purpose of radical politicians to prolong and extend their party power by means of negro
Most exasperating to Radical Republicans was “black codes”; all seven states took steps to ensure a landless, dependent black labor force. Johnson’s plan assured the ratification of the Thirteenth Amendment- neither slavery nor involuntary servitude shall exist in the United States- but the codes infringed strictly on the freedmen’s behavior. Racial segregation in public places, racial intermarriage, jury service by black and court testimony by black against whites were all popular codes. These black codes left freedmen no longer slaves but not totally liberated either. In December 1865, Congressed refused to seat delegates of ex-Confederate states.
The southern states were threatened with losing their congressional representation if they did not vote in favor of the Fourteenth amendment, which forbade the States to infringe upon the basic natural rights of other citizens, including African Americans. DiLorenzo explains this, stating “Congress blackmailed the Southern states into passing the Fourteenth Amendment to the Constitution by prohibiting congressional representation by those states unless they ratified the amendment.” (207) As Lincoln stated many times, he did not care for blacks. He saw them as inferior and thought it best that whites and blacks had no relations with each other.
INTRO: Reconstruction; the most conflicting era in the United States history. Coming directly after the Civil War from 1865 thorough 1877, Reconstruction played a major part in the Land of the Free’s backstory. Throughout Reconstruction many things occurred within the North and South due to chaos within the government system, neighborhoods, and social classes. The creator of Reconstruction and the 16th president, Abraham Lincoln created the idea of Reconstruction in the South while the Civil War was going on.
End of Reconstruction in 1877 Reconstruction means the action or process of reconstructing or being reconstructed. Today, when we hear the word reconstruction it is thought of as something that is being built or rebuilding to make new. However in 1877, reconstruction in the south was more a reformation of a way of life rather than a restoration of a building or a highway.
Dunning and Beale focused on how the Reconstruction was morally corrupt and disagreed with the freedom the former slaves had received. The majority of other historians to reevaluate the Reconstruction came to an almost unanimous conclusion of it being beneficial for the former slaves to have had this freedom. While there are minor differences in opinions of those writers, more people saw how that small independence for the blacks helped shape the civil rights movements for decades after. Overall, I agree with both general ideas of the Reconstruction being morally corrupt in a business sense and also that the freedom the former slaves received was beneficial for society as a
What is Reconstruction? Reconstruction was the restoration of the seceded states and the integration of the freedmen into American society during and especially after the Civil War. (1865-1877) Most people believe that reconstruction started and ended at the same time in all states, but in reality different Southern states had a different start and end time of reconstruction phase. Union imposed the reconstruction policies as and when a particular state was seized from the Confederate control. Reconstruction was concerned with the re-inclusion of former Confederate states into union, safeguarding the civil rights of freed slaves, fate of former Confederate officials and their civil status and the issue of according suffrage to these freed men.
The Congress on the other hand wanted to end slavery and allow them the vote right
While society did remain very oppressive towards non-white people, the overall actions taken through Congressional Reconstruction emulate a vision of freedom and equality transcending into political, economic, and social life. By expanding and defending individual protections, Congress was able to quell the overt resurgence of a white supremacist order that had precipitated immediately following the Civil War. Despite the relatively successful expansion of freedom and equality achieved during the extensive federal oversight period that is considered Congressional Reconstruction, the conservative elements that had thrived in the pre-war period and during Presidential Reconstruction continued to actively work to restrict progressive actions. Even as Congress passed and ratified the 15th Amendment and expanded voting rights to all U.S. citizens, traditionalist en mass sought to restrict voting rights and implement new methods to disenfranchise African Americans.
The American civil war led to the reunion of the South and the North. But, its consequences led the Republicans to take the lead of reconstructing what the war had destroyed especially in the South because it contained larger numbers of newly freed slaves. Just after the civil war, America entered into what was called as the reconstruction era. Reconstruction refers to when “the federal government established the terms on which rebellious Southern states would be integrated back into the Union” (Watts 246). As a further matter, it also meant “the process of helping the 4 million freed slaves after the civil war [to] make the transition to freedom” (DeFord and Schwarz 96).
lack of education and social rights were rampant (Murphy, 1987). Despite all of this, the Reconstruction movement went forward at incredible speeds. Voting rights for the new black citizens were part of this new social change. Even in the northern areas, the new social phenomenon posed by black participation in the electoral process, was remarkable, to say the least. Much of this change in social policy can be credited to the Freedmen’s Bureau and the Union League.
Reconstruction was a difficult time after the Civil War. Readmitting the former confederate states to the Union is call Reconstruction(History Book). Reconstruction was supposed to bring the North and South together, but that didn't happen because of southerners. Many reasons contribute to the failure of Reconstruction. The South was most responsible for the failure of Reconstruction.
Reconstruction is the time period after the Civil War, where the country attempted to improve the Union. There were many successes, but what also comes along with success is failure. During the reconstruction many failures were present; such as the lack of racial equality and blatant racism towards blacks, a failing economy in the South, and tense relations between the North and the South. This created a very intense and challenging period of time for the Union.
Reconstruction was successful in the idea that is reunited the United States by the former Confederate states pledging to the United States government and developing a new constitution which embodied the Thirteenth and Fourteenth Amendments. At first, Reconstruction brought numerous job opportunities for black and whites in the South since collaboration was essential for the nation to be whole again. Furthermore, education, Freedmen 's Bureau, and laws were established in order to provide the newly freedmen with any assistance to feel like an American citizen. Some examples of these specific laws or acts are the Thirteenth, Fourteenth, and Fifteenth Amendments and the Civil Rights Act of 1875 which “required the state governments provide equal
Fortunately for some period of time the success of the reconstruction outweigh the negative, these negatives quickly escalated during this important milestone for the country. The process of the reconstruction quickly went downhill, after the positives transformed into negatives, the negatives did not end there and the list continued to grow. The addition of “black codes” began to destroy the newly established freedom of the former slaves. White supremacist congressmen passed the laws known as black codes to forbid “blacks the right to make contracts, testify against whites, marry white women, be unemployed, and loiter in public places”.