Carboxylic acid Essays

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    1,3,4-Oxadiazole (1) is a heterocyclic compound containing an oxygen atom and two nitrogen atoms in a five-membered ring. It is derived from furan by substitution of two methylene groups (=CH) with two pyridine type nitrogens (-N=) [1,2]. There are three known isomers: 1,2,4-oxadiazole (2), 1,2,3-oxadiazole (3) and 1,2,5-oxadiazole (4). However, 1,3,4-oxadiazole and 1,2,4-oxadiazole are better known, and more widely studied by researchers because of their many important chemical and biological properties

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    These electron chains are oxidised, transferring all of their electrons to their carrier molecules which are embedded in the ECT membrane. NADH enter the electron transport chain. The FADH2 originate in the citric acid cycle. In the first part of this process, electrons that pass from NADH to the electron transport chain, flow through the remaining complexes. NADH is oxidized to NAD during process. In the second part of this process, FADH is oxidized, picking up

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    Pyridine Lab Report

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    Chemical properties Pyridine is miscible with water and virtually all organic solvents.[10] It is weakly basic, and with hydrochloric acid it forms a crystalline hydrochloride salt that melts at 145–147 °C.[25] Most chemical properties of pyridine are typical of aheteroaromatic compound Molecular properties Pyridine has a conjugated system of six π electrons that are delocalized over

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    Esters Lab

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    The ester studied was “3,” the acid used was 9.5 mL of “B,” and the alcohol used was 18.1 mL of “C.” A few substances were added to augment the production of the ester. Sulfuric acid (H2SO4) was added using a dropper bottle to catalyze the reaction. The desiccant in this reaction was drierite and was used to absorb the water byproduct. This prevented the ester

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    iv. 1,4 cyclohexanedimethanol (1,4 CHDM) 1,4 cyclohexanedimethanol is an alicyclic glycol [52], the cycloaliphatic structure of 1,4 cyclohexanedimethanol imparts particular conformational transitions and molecular structure to polyesters [53]. Ni et al [54] stated that polyesters containing cyclic moieties in their backbone are of transitional mechanical properties in comparison to aromatic and linear polyesters. 1,4 cyclohexanedimethanol could provide an excellent compromise between hardness

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    cases is dehydrated during the course of the reaction. Even if the dehydration is not spontaneous, it can usually be done easily, since the new double bond will be in conjugation with the C=O bond.   Ritter Reaction Alcohols is converted by a strong acid to a carbocation, which adds to the negative nitrogen. The immediate product tautomerizes to the N-alkyl amide. Only alcohols that give rise to fairly stable carbocation react; primary alcohols do not give the reaction. The carbocation need not be

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    Polyester Fibre Research

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    Indtroduction: Polyester are polymers made by a condensation reaction taking place between small molecules, in which the linkage of the molecules occurs through the formation of estes groups. Polyesters are commonly made by interaction of a dibasic acid with a dihydric alcohol: HOOC-X-COOH+HO-Y-OH OC-X-COO-Y-OCO-X-COO-Y-OCO The formation of polyester was studied by Wallace H. Carothers of du Point during the investigation of polyesters which lead eventually to the discovery of nylon. Development

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    Extraction is the process of separating substance from one phase by another phase. It is often used as one of the steps in isolating a product of an organic reaction. A separatory funnel would be used for the isolation from the mixture. A solvent will be used to remove or isolate a compound of interest from a liquid substance. In most cases, water was used as the solvent to the reaction mixture to dissolve the inorganic compound. The organic compounds will be separated from the aqueous mixture by

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    (acetylsalicylic acid) is an aromatic compound that contains an ester- functional group and a carboxylic acid- functional group. Aspirin is commonly used as a pain reliever (analgesic), an anti-inflammatory, an anti-coagulant (prevent platelet aggregation) and an antipyretic (to reduce fever) pill. It helps to prevent strokes, heart attacks and blood clot formation. It can be produced from salicylic acid and acetic anhydride, with acetic acid as its by-product. However, salicylic acid consists of the

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    The objective of this experiment was the synthesis of Isopentyl Acetate using an esterification reaction between acetic acid and Isopentyl Alcohol, using a strong acid as a catalyst. The product was washed, and distilled. This approach is called Fisher esterification, whereby esters are produced by refluxing a carboxylic acid and an alcohol in the presence of a concentrated acid catalyst. The ester produced had a banana smell odor. The extraction of the crude product was conducted using sodium bicarbonate

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    belongs to class of haemostatic compound that blocks prostacycline synthetase, an enzyme that converts arachidonic acid to Prostacycline and therefore increases platelet aggregation and platelet adhesiveness. It is used for the prevention and treatment of capillary haemorrhage, and postpartum haemorrhage. Ethamsylate is official present in British pharmacopoeia. [3] Tranexamic acid

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    5-Trifluoromethyl Oxazole

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    The methods which substitute fluorine for proton at an aimed position in chemicals has an ability to convert into useful pharmaceuticals or functional materials due to fluorine specific potency, and is often used as one of the improvement means. Whereas compounds possessing 2-phenyl-5-methyl oxazole in a structure are known to quite a few, the papers related to 2-phenyl-5-trifluoromethyl oxazole of which substituted trifluoromethyl group instead of a methyl group as a partial structure are not so

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    Aim The purpose of this lab was to separate a mixture of carboxylic acid (p- toluic acid), a phenol (p-tert-butylphenol) and a neutral compound (acetanilide) using solvent extraction. Introduction Solvent extraction is a process that separates compounds from a mixture by a solvent. It involves the transfer of compounds from one liquid solvent to another liquid solvent. The two solvents used in this process should be immiscible to each other for the separation of compounds leading to an organic

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    (i.e. Sodium and potassium salt of the acid or trimethylamine) to give unsaturated carboxylic acid.(Equation-1)[1].In 1968 Perkin described the very first example of such type condensation reaction, involve the synthesis of coumarin by condensing the sodium or potassium salt of salicylaldehyde with acetic anhydride (Equation-2)[2].Generally such type of reaction is only applicable to aromatic aldehyde and useful for the preparation of substituted cinnamic acid (Equation-3)[3] Equation-1 Equation-2

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    Hepcidin Lab Report

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    Chemicals The magnetic particles Dynabeads® MyOneTM Carboxylic Acid were from Invitrogen (Life Technologies, Van Alley, CA, USA). The hepcidin standard was obtained from Peptide Institute Inc (Osaka, Japan), N-ethyl-N’-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC) and 2-(N-morpholino)-ethane sulfonic acid (MES) from Calbiochem® (Merck), and phosphate buffer saline (PBS) from Sigma Aldrich. The solvents used, such as formic acid and acetonitrile, were LC-MS grade and were purchased from

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    Oxazole Synthesis

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    examination by choosing 5-methoxy -2-phenyl oxazole (2a) as starting material to proceed whether Friedel–Crafts reaction. Although the normal conditions which used Lewis acid such as AlCl3 or TiCl4 with TFAA in DCE did not proceed to acylation, the reaction of introducing trifluoroacetyl group at the C4-position of oxazole without Lewis acid gave substituted oxazole (4a). Contrary to our expectations, isolated oxazole had been not trifluoroacetylated derivative (3a), reaching rearrangement compound (4a)

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    The goal of this lab was to prepare methyl m-nitrobenzoate using electrophilic aromatic substitution using nitration. The reaction used methyl benzoate with the acid catalyst as sulfuric acid. The mechanism for the nitration using methyl benzoate is presented in Figure 1. Figure 1: Benzene can only undergo substitution reactions that are called electrophilic aromatic substitution reactions. Given that benzene rings are used commonly in the production of many organic compounds, the capability

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    Ceylon Cinnamon versus Cassia Cinnamon Cinnamomum verum which means “true cinnamon” is a lighter, brighter spice that is obtained from the inner bark of a tree native to Sri Lanka. Ceylon Cinnamon, as it is more commonly known as, is a milder spice as compared to the more regularly used Cassia Cinnamon. Although many countries in South-East Asia grow cinnamon, Ceylon Cinnamon is the world’s best. It’s mild, smooth aroma and taste is perfect for gourmet, desserts, smoothies, flavoring meat and basically

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    Hychem Experiments

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    MDA level was determined by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in serum, based on the reaction between MDA and TBARS. Standard Malondialdehyde solution in 5 mL of volume was processed along with test samples. 1.5 mL of 0.8% of TBA was added to 1 mL of the serum sample. Then 0.4 mL of 8.1% sodium dodecyl sulphate and 1.5 mL of acetic acid was added. The mixture was finally made upto 5 mL with distilled water and placed in hot water bath

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    Azathioprine Preparation

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    5.1 MATERIAL USED Azathioprine was obtained as a gift sample from M/s Psycorem Pharmaceuticals Ltd. (Ludhiana, India); Carbopol 934 was purchased from Sunchem (India), Tween 20 and Span 20, Methyl and Propyl paraben, Light liquid paraffin, Propylene glycol, Triethanolamine (TEA), and Ethyl alcohol were purchased from M/s Central Drug House Pvt. Ltd ( New Delhi, India). Doubled distilled water was used throughout the study. 5.2 METHOD OF PREPARATION OF AZATHIOPRINE EMULGEL 5.2.1 Preparation of Emulsion

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