There are many different ideologies in politics. From a social-scientific viewpoint, an ideology is more or less coherent set of ideas that provides a basis for organized political action, whether this is intended to preserve, modify or overthrow the existing system of power relationship. Some of those ideologies are liberalism, conservatism socialism. Italy focus is on Fascism. Fascism is a political ideology in which the state possesses all the power over the country. Actually, fascism is not suitable for the public compared to the modern and fairer ideologies like socialism and democracy. Fascism requires all citizens to work solely for the government .It is a totalitarian nationalist ideology. Also Fascism is structurally rigid and authoritarian.
Have you ever heard the saying that Fascism and Communism are two sides of the same coin? These ideologies flourished during the first half of the 20th century and influenced several European states which followed the two ideologies. Fascism was imposed in order to promote powerful and permanent nationalism within a totalitarian state led by a dictator which is ready to engage in conflict internally and with its neighbors. The doctrine of Fascism was drafted in 1919 by Giovanni Gentile and adopted by Mussolini (Mussolini is considered the founder of fascism). Gentile stated, “Everything for the state; nothing against the state” (Heywood, Politics 48). Meanwhile, the theory of Communism was theoretically developed by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels in 1848, with the writing of “The Communist Manifesto” (Heywood, Politics 41). Communism is a system in which all economics and politics are synthesized into one classless state which is most commonly associated with common ownership and people 's leadership by a political party. Although both ideologies coincide in a few aspects when in practice, Communism and Fascism feature different approaches to property and society.
Fascism and The Political Spectrum In todays political world, most politicians and ideologues want to be as far removed from Fascism as is possible. Additionally, these same politicians often attempt to brand their opponents as fascists. This has resulted in fascism being used as more of a insult than an ideological identifier. This is not surprising given the unpopular nature of Fascism in modern society.
Fascism and communism are both types of totalitarian style governments that had a great influence on the 20th century. Communism involved the emphasis on the common good by seizing private property and distributing it among the masses in order to create state-owned property, whereas fascism involved the complete rule of a dictator by forcibly suppressing the opposition with an emphasis on nationalism and sometimes racism. The most popular example of communism was the Soviet Union, but many smaller countries possessed the Soviet Union’s communist influence. The two most popular examples of fascist style governments include Hitler’s Nazism in Germany, which had an emphasis on racism, and Mussolini’s fascist state in Italy. Although many countries pursued communist style governments, fascism had a greater impact and
Fascism is the act of the total control of people. It is a form of government, which is a type of one-party dictatorship. Fascists are against democracy. Militarism is the glorification of military might. The Nazi Party, which was led by Adolf Hitler in Germany, claimed that they would earn back the country’s economy and rebuild its military.
Q7. The Fascist nations were extremely powerful during their time, along with the strong leadership they provided. Fascism is a political movement which promotes extreme forms of militarism and nationalism. It includes the denial of individual rights and dictatorial one-party rule. Fascism has several characteristics; for example, social, chief examples, basic principles, political, economic, and cultural characteristics. Socially, Fascism was mainly supported by the middle class, industrialists, and the military. With fascism quickly on the rise, it would become somewhat of an unstoppable force. Take into consideration the Axis Powers during this time, along with fascism they would be unstoppable forces at work.
In 1919, Benito Mussolini described fascism as “A movement that would strike against the backwardness of the right and the destructiveness of the left.” That “Fascism sitting on the right, could also have sat on the mountain of the center… These words in any case do not have a fixed and unchanged: they do have a variable subject to location, time and spirit. We don’t give a damn about these empty terminologies and we despise those who are terrorized by these words.”
Nazi Germany is the common name for the German Reich from 1933 to 1945 with Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party in command. Fascist Italy is the era of National Fascist Party rule from 1922 to 1943 with Benito Mussolini as the totalitarian ruler. Under Hitler’s rule, Germany was transformed into a fascist dictatorial state that controlled all aspects of life. The fascists, in Italy, imposed totalitarian rule and crushed the political and intellectual opposition. With this being said, there are other similarities and differences between Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy.
The Age of Absolutism is defined as a time period in Europe in which monarchs gained all of the power and wealth over the state for themselves, expanding the idea of single rule. The Enlightenment, on the other hand, is defined as a movement during the 18th century that rejected traditional social, religious, and political ideas, and introduced a desire to construct governments free of tyranny (or single rule). Document 3, a primary source written by King Louis XIV of France in 1660, is describing the idea of monarchy stating,“ The more you grant . . . [to the assembled people], the more it claims . . . The interest of the state must come first” (Document 3).
Absolute monarchy is rule by one person, usually a King or Queen, who obtains absolute power of authority with no repercussions for what he or she does. Bishop Bossuet held strongly to the argument of absolute monarchy, whereas John Locke opposed on the basis of man's natural rights. Bossuet and Locke have different views on the government’s source of power and their ideas about the rights of the people, but agreed that their chosen theories are in the best interest of the people and held their country's unity in high regard. The first thing we can look at when comparing the two philosophers ideas, is their differences of opinions on the government's source of power.
In Causes and Consequences of World War II fascism is defined, Ross states that,“Fascism is a dictatorial political system in which the state is the supreme source of law, order, and national life. Ordinary people are given few rights and are expected to submit to the will of the state.” Created by Benito Mussolini, this right wing style of government emphasized authoritarian, intolerant, violent standards and would proceed to take over Italy and help influence the start of World War II.The creation of fascism was a result of many concerns and fears in Italy during the 1920’s; civilians were scared of the increased industrialization and modernization of Italy, the rise of socialism and communism, and was part of the reaction to enlightenment ideals. The extremely nationalistic government spoke to the people due to its promises to fight against everything they feared. Mussolini suggested “The Third Way” which means a way that is somewhere between socialism and capitalism would be the best decision for the people.
Firstly, an absolute monarchy as proposed by Hobbes would require that people relinquish their own rights and to submit to one absolute power, which Locke feels is counterintuitive his understand of humans in the state of nature. A distinctive feature of Locke’s state of nature is perfect freedom for people to carry out their own wills without hindrance. Hence, Locke’s main critique of Hobbes’ absolutism is that people living under a Hobbesian