In the discussion of social inequality, one cannot leave out the sociological theories and models proposed by Karl Marx and Adam Smith. Generally, social inequality refers to the presence of unequal treatment, opportunities and rewards tied to people of various social standings within the hierarchy of a community group or society. Some common types of social inequality include wealth and income disparity as well as social class stratification. For Marx and Smith, both had explored the various types of social inequality in society. To begin with, Marx mentioned “The history of all hitherto existing society is the history of class struggles.” (Marx, 1978, p. 473). Marx understood the history of mankind as a chain of different eras brought about …show more content…
Smith mentioned that “The division of labour, however, so far as it can be introduced, occasions, in every art, a proportionable increase of the productive powers of labour.” (Smith, p. 110). Such a phenomenon would no doubt result in an increase in productivity due to the specialisation of jobs with increased efficiency in doing work. However, due to the specialisation of jobs, the people in society would then be subjected to job positions with varying levels in wages, which could result in income inequality in the society. Furthermore, Smith added “This separation, too, is generally carried furthest in those countries which enjoy the highest degree of industry and improvement” (Smith, p. 111). Thus, not all countries experience similar levels of industrialisation, which implies varying degrees of division of labour in the workforce. This would lead to an uneven distribution of wealth among the countries and result in economic inequality among …show more content…
Marx advocated revolution by the Proletariat against the Bourgeoisie to reduce income and social class inequality. However, Smith felt that the Invisible Hand and the division of labour would eventually bring the poor out of poverty, but may not entirely resolve the income inequality or equal distribution of
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The idea behind this according to Marx is that history is a series of stages, defined by their mode of production and the struggle between classes: "The history of all hitherto existing society is the history of class struggles. " According to Marx, the current historical stage is the capitalist historical stage. This is the conflict between the bourgeoisie (middle class) and the proletariat (working class). This theory is supported by the historical stages preceding the capitalist historical stage which can easily be defined by their modes of production and class struggle, or lack thereof.
In Smith’s theory, he focused on the individual, but Marx preferred to pay much more attention on a specific social class. Marx says, “The distinguishing feature of Communism is no the abolition of property generally, but the abolition of bourgeois property (Marx, 1848).” For example, proletariat needed to build a new social class through revolution, and abolition of private property needed to be established in society. Marx had also offered other policies that helped to get rid of the different class distinctions between bourgeois and proletariat and distribute the wealth equally such as “abolition of all right of inheritance, exclusion of monopoly, equal liability of all to labor, and a more equable distribution of the population over the country (Marx, 1848).” These policies not only prohibited one to hold certain power and rights to rule others, but they also promoted the equal distribution of wealth in
The Industrial Revolution cast its shadow upon European cities and towns. Some enjoyed this shade while others suffered tremendously because of it. Those who enjoyed the luxuries and wealth that the Industrial Revolution provided, the bourgeoisie, depended on the needs of the poor, the proletarians, to increase the size of their monstrous factories and ultimately their wealth and influence. In “The Communist Manifesto” Karl Marx discusses the effects of the Industrial Revolution in further dividing society by creating new social and economic hierarchies. In addition to his observation of the division of labor, Karl Marx believed, that due to the technological shift from craftsmanship to machinery this also caused division of labor and the appreciation of proletarian handmade goods was disregarded.
Poverty in Brevard County My Social Issue Poverty is a worldwide issue. With emphasis on poverty in third world countries like Africa, Haiti, etc. Citizens of Brevard County tend to overlook how poverty is happening in our own back yards. My social issue is about poverty in Brevard County and I aim to bring awareness to this terrible situation.
Present at least two different sociological approaches to social inequality and discuss these approaches with reference to a concrete problem area of contemporary relevance. Social inequality can be found in various aspects of society, the question is if inequality is only caused by the lack of economical estate or if other reasons are underlining it. This essay argues how Max Weber distinguishes between social class and strata and how one often leads to the other. Furthermore, it presents Pierre Bourdieu’s notions of habitus, capital and fields as an explanation of how people can achieve different social statuses within different fields because of their capitals. At last, the two different sociological approaches to social inequality is used to analyze the case of non-traditional students at Australian universities and how they are socially disadvantaged compared to traditional students because of their lack economical support, language skills, educational skills and social relations.
America prides itself on being one of the most effective democratically governed counties. The idea of the American dream is that all people have equivalent political freedoms and a responsive government. However the effectiveness of social equality is being threatened by increasing inequality in the United States. Economic inequality in the US has expanded drastically. The wealth gap has had drastic changes over the past 35 years.
The Industrial Revolution resulted in many huge changes in society, including a growth in capitalism. The social and political effects have produced a great amount of debate. Andrew Ure, Karl Marx, and Adam Smith all had differing views on industrial capitalism and opinions about what its social consequences would be. Ure’s “The Philosophy of Manufactures,” Marx’s “The Communist Manifesto,” and Smith’s “Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations” all portray their perspectives.
1. Introduction Income inequality has grown significantly during this past decades and this phenomenon continues to increase over the years. This problem is constantly discussed in the daily news all around the world. Several consequences of this increase of inequality between people leads to economic problems such as high unemployment rates, lack of work for young people, fall of demand for certain product. The gap between rich and poor is increasing, the rich are richer and the poor are poorer as a result politicians and economists try to adopt certain policies in order to reduce this gap.
The division of labor is monumental to the growth of the capitalist economy because of its profound effects on efficiency, work ethics, and worker solidarity. However, certain deficiencies such as alienation of the worker can cause challenges in the work place. Theorist Adam Smith believed that an efficiency work ethic was the key to a prosperous capitalist economy. Smith stated that his theory of labor division focuses on specialization (as cited in
Social inequalities can be described as the differences in “income, resources, power and status” (Naidoo and Wills 2008, in Warwick-Booth 2013, 2) that advantage a social class, a group or an individual over another, and thereby establish social hierarchies. It also affects inequalities in regards to gender, race, access to health and education, and general living conditions. In sociology, the dichotomy between the conflict theory approach and the functionalist approach has led to a discordant opinion in regards to social inequalities. The conflict theory seems to admit that social inequalities needs to disappear in order to install a common and equal base for all individuals, whereas the functionalist approach believes that social inequalities
The three main ideas from the Communist Manifesto The Communist Manifesto, written by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, had little to no influence when it was first published in 1848 for the Communist League. However, soon after Marx and Engel’s other writings on socialism became published it grew in popularity, and was considered a standard text of the time (Brians, 2006). With Marx’s radical ideas, and Engels’ thorough writing, they were able to convey how they were individual of the other socialists of the time and elaborate on their idea socialism and how it would inevitably be achieved. The three main ideas from The Communist Manifesto are class conflict, ephemeral capitalism, and inevitable revolution.
Question 1. What do you make of Karl Marx’s contributions to sociology? Answer: It would take volumes to describe how important Karl Marx’s work is in sociology. His work is important in the 21st century because his concepts and ideas are the only genuine seeds for a better society.
CHAPTER 3 CLASS STRUGGLE Generally class struggle means conflict between the upper class and lower class the idea of Class struggle is long-used mostly by socialists and communists, who define a class by its relationship to the means of production such as factories, land, and machinery. From this point of view, the social control of production and labour is a fight between classes, and the division of these resources basically involves conflict and causes damage. Societies are socially divided based on status, wealth, or control of social production and distribution, and in this division of class conflict arises. It is important to know Karl Marx theory on class struggle; he viewed the structure of society in relation to
Class conflict, Marx believed, was what encouraged the evolution of society. To quote Marx himself, The history of all hitherto existing society is the history of class struggles. Freeman and slave, patrician and plebeian, lord and serf, guild-master and journeyman, in a word, oppressor and oppressed, stood in constant opposition to one