This arise from the French socialist and communist literature. The german “True” socialists, the revolutionary Proletariat and with the help of the over concentration of capital, they threaten and abolish the “industrial and political supremacy” of the Bourgeoisie (The Communist Manifesto, Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, Chapter III, paragraph 15, page 31). The second category is the bourgeois or conservative socialism. This ideology comes from the awareness of the bourgeoisie such as humanitarians, economists or improvers which fight against the proletariat suffering and inequalities. They try to attempt to mitigate the injustices of the working class within society, by providing then the benefits they deserve, such as; “free trade, prison reform and protective duties” (The Communist Manifesto, Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, Chapter III, paragraph 7, page 32).
In their Manifesto, Marx and Engels predicted that one day the proletariat of the world would rise up in an inevitable revolution. This is based around the theory of how the world is defined by a struggle between and among economic classes, which will eventually lead to the establishment of a provisional vanguard state that would slowly transition a society to a communist society by abolishing class altogether. The procedure and the process of the revolution that is to occur, is built upon Marx 's famous generalization that ‘the history of all hitherto existing society is the history of class struggles’[ Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, The Communist Manifesto, ed. by Jeffrey C. Isaac, (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2012).]. Marx 's
Marx thought that social stratification is created by the unequal access to the productive properties. The capitalist or also called the bourgeoisie, exploit their workers by only paying them as much as necessary to scratch a living. The workers are not aware of their invidious position as they take the ideologies, norms and values which the capitalists promotes, for granted. Marx predicted a revolution of the workers. He believed that the proletariat will become aware of its misery and will unite to overthrow the capitalists and capitalism.
John Stuart Mill first developed the idea of a social tyranny in the middle of the nineteenth century, during a time when radical political upheaval was taking place and the process of governance was becoming more democratic. Despite the weakening of the once absolute power of political institutions, one source of despotism remained: that of society itself. Social tyranny occurs “when society is itself the tyrant” (Mill 9), creating its own ‘laws’ and collectively administering justice upon those who break them. According to Mill, this form of oppression is especially dangerous, since it “leaves fewer means of escape… enslaving the soul itself” (Mill 9). In Maxine Hong Kingston’s “No Name Woman”, the village forms a social tyranny through its total subjugation of the private lives of its constituents, its strict code of sociocultural norms, and its enforcement of these practices via unanimous social excommunication.
In the classic example of historical materialism, Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels argued that all of human history is the result of conflict between classes, which evolved overtime in accordance with changes in society’s mode of production. Conflict can take many forms and involve struggle over many different types of resources including status. However, formal conflict theory had its foundation in the analysis of class conflict and the example of the owner and the tenant can be understood in terms of class conflict. In class conflict, owners are likely to have relative advantaged over non owners. In a nutshell, the theory posit that stratification holds that inequality is harmful to society because it creates a fixed system of winners and losers.
Marxism consists of Karl Marx’s economic, political and social theories that aim to eliminate class structures, brought upon by capitalism, through revolutionary movements. Marxism proposes completely eradicating capitalism by establishing a dictatorship by the proletariat that will inevitably lead to a self-governing classless society. Marxism became increasingly popular in Colombia during the twentieth century, when social inequality, foreign domination and poverty issues that Marxism sought to solve were persisting problems that a large fraction of the population endured on a daily basis. The revolutionary nature of Marxism prompted the creation of insurrectionist groups known as guerrillas in various of the countries in Latin America. Even
The Communist Manifesto was written in Europe in 1848 and is known for its upright opposition of a capitalist society. Within the text lie many in-depth reasons corroborating the need of equality among a society. The text does not only emphasize how capitalism affects economy, but also how it affects social interactions. Specifically, Marx and Engels mention the change of relations within families and between humans. It is then remarkable to read work, such as Rachel Carson’s Silent Spring, published in 1962 that exemplifies Marx’s predictions of a nation suffering from the effects of capitalism.
I think Marxist criminology explains this idea exility when he said “For the bureaucrat, the world is a mere object to be manipulated by him.” I see the radical conflict between the bourgeoisie and the proletariat as a main cause of crime. I think that because the rich and the poop are so disporportet that conflict is just around the corner. Yet, America can’t see that by having a two-party system were one group support the rich businesses and the other support the poor masses, is the cause of riots, vandalism and deviants.
Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels express their major critiques and opinions on capitalism in their 1848 publication of The Communist Manifesto. Their critiques are based around the idea that capitalism is simply unfair, meaning that one class benefits significantly more than the rest. The class that benefits least from capitalism is the proletariats. This unintelligent labor class suffers from the capitalists dominance, and is unaware of the damage they are experiencing. George Orwell’s depiction of Boxer in his novel, Animal Farm, fits precisely into Marx and Engels’ negative critique of capitalism by representing a strong symbol for the proletariat class and succumbing to the powerful demands of the capitalists.
Mandel defines Karl Marx’s pioneered perspective as a view wherein it views history or social systems as having conflict between social classes, with the rich having the utmost power. It is also the antithesis of capitalism, Mandel further stating that capitalism serves to acquire or to exploit (1977). Likewise, in the Communist Manifesto, Marx stated that the working class (proletariats) should unite and stand up against their oppressors. Functionalism is defined as the view wherein society is made up of parts, where each part is contributing to the whole, and each part is contributing to society’s progression (CliffNotes). Durkheim’s “Division of Labor” can be defined as how divisons in society can ultimately be good for the people in it, creating a some sort of mutual connection between themselves (Crossman, 2015).