Bulk Fermentation Process

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There are wide variety of biotechnology application includes biological, biochemical, bioengineering, genetic and control techniques. One of the oldest biotechnical processes is the baking of breads(1). This process originated in ancient times and the general method is to mix flour with other ingredients. For instance, water, salt and some source of aeration followed by baking. The making of fermented bread was initiate by the Egyptians during 2000 BC. The practice was to use a little old dough, or leaven, to create the new dough. These two doughs were mixed together and allowed to ferment for some hours before baking. They made an astonishing 50 varieties of bread, paid wages with bread, and painted bread making scenes in their tombs. Since…show more content…
But, basically all bread processing rely on these 4 key steps which are mixing, fermenting, baking and cooling. Bread is made with three basic ingredients: grain, water, and bakers ' yeast, while wheat flour, water, salt, sugar accounts for more than ninety five percent of bread mass, remaining three to four percent ingredients are the key ingredients that convert these humble daily used food ingredients in to appetizing bread.
The method start with the sifted flour is poured into an industrial mixer. Then, Temperature-controlled water Bread is piped into the mixer to produce a mixture called gluten and the function of it to give elasticity to the bread. After that the pre-measured amount of yeast is added. Yeast is the crucial ingredient and acts as fermenting agent responsible for gassing effect in wheat flour dough and plays important role in volume, taste and desired fine honeycomb like structure of bread crumb. Scientific name of baker’s yeast is Saccharomyces cerevisiae. It is the single largest and most commonly used biotechnology product world over. The purpose for using yeast is it can produce gas bubbles, which leaven the bread. Depending on the type of bread to be made, other ingredients are also poured into the
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This is the second step. During fermentation, from a rough dense mass lacking extensibility and with poor gas holding properties, the dough slowly changes into a smooth, extensible dough with good gas holding properties. As the yeast cells grow, the gluten protein pieces clump together to form networks. Hence, the alcohol and carbon dioxide are formed from the breakdown of carbohydrates that are found naturally in the flour. Enzymes present in yeast and flour also help to speed up this reaction. There are several reactions occur when there is plenty of oxygen present. Then the energy released is used by the yeast for growth and activity. However, when the oxygen supply is limited, the yeast can only partially breakdown the sugar. Alcohol and carbon dioxide are produced in this process known as alcoholic fermentation. The fermentation occur when the carbon dioxide produced in these reactions. Which will make the dough to rise, and the alcohol produced mostly evaporates from the dough during the baking process. As fermentation occurs each yeast cell forms a centre around which carbon dioxide bubbles form. Each of the bubbles is surrounded by a thin film of gluten form cells inside the dough piece. When these cells fill with gas the dough is increased in size. During rising, if any large gas holes formed, they will be released by kneading. Then the dough is then allowed to rise

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